Glossary of Nutrition (DSCC)

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Amino acid
an organic chemical compound composed of one or more basic amino groups & one or more acidic carboxyl groups
an energy-using reaction that builds more complex substances
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
Anorexia nervosa
a condition of self-imposed fasting or severe self-imposed dieting
the science of measuring the human body as to height, weight, & size of component parts
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the minimum caloric requirement to sustain life in a resting individual
Body Mass Index (BMI)
an index of weight in relation to height that is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by square of height in meters
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binging & purging
any of a group of organic compounds, the most important of which are the saccharides, starch, cellulose, & glycogen
energy-producing reactions that break down biochemical substances into simpler substances
acidic, liquefied mass
Complementary Proteins
pairs of incomplete proteins that when combined supply the total amount of protein provided by complete protein sources
Daily Values
a reference created by the FDA for labeling purposes
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
a set of four nutrient-based reference values used to plan & evaluate diets
difficulty swallowing
Enteral Nutrition
the delivery of nutrients by tube into the gastrointestinal tract
protein-like substances that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions
Essential amino acids
amino acids that cannot be made by the body
Fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins soluble in faty
Fatty acids
organic compounds composed of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are attached
the group name for carbohydrates that are not digested in the human gastrointestinal tract
catabolism of amino acids & glycerol into glucose for energy
anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage
catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, & water.
an abnormal condition resulting from excessive intake of toxic amounts of one or more vitamins
Ideal Body Weight (IBW)
formula to estimate a person’ reasonable weight based on height.
acidic compounds formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbs are not available.
Lipid emulsions
provide supplemental kilocalories & prevent essential fatty acid deficiencies
group of water-insoluble, energy-yielding organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen atoms
when daily requirement is 100mg or more of a mineral
impaired absorption of nutrients from the GI tract
Medical nutrition therapy
the use of specific nutritional therapies to treat illness, injury, or condition.
the sum total of all physical & chemical changes that occur in living cells.
inorganic elements essential to the body as catalysts in biochemical reactions
Monounsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids with one double bond
Nitrogen balance
when protein synthesis & protein breakdown occur at the same rate.
Nutrient density
amino acids the body can make
Nonessential amino acids
relatively high in nutrients for the amount of calories provided.
Parenteral nutrition (PN)
are the elements necessary for body processes & function
the delivery of nutrients by vein
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
wavelike muscular contractions that move food thru the intestinal tract.
Resting energy expenditure (REE)
fatty acids with two or more double carbon bonds.
the calories expended maintaining basic, involuntary activities needed to sustain life
Saturated fatty acids
sugar molecule
Simple carbohydrates
each carbon in the chain has two attached hydrogen atoms.

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