Glossary of Nutrition- Chapter 12: Food Safety

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Microorganism or substance capable of causing disease.
A shortened name for microorganisms; minute organisms too small to observe without a microscope, including bacteria, viruses, and others.
The treatment of milk with heat sufficient to kill certain pathogens (disease-causing microbes) commonly transmitted through milk. not a sterilization process. It retains bacteria that cause milk spoilage. Raw milk, even if labels "certified,"
Poisons that act upon mucous membranes, such as those of the digestive tract.
Poisons that act upon the cells of the nervous system.
Microorganisms can hurt us by two methods:
1. Infection
2. Production of toxins (enterotoxins and neurotoxins)
An often-fatal food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium that grows without oxygen in nonacidic canned foods.
High risk groups most at risk for Food Born Illness are (five of them):
1. Older adults
2. Very young- small children
3. Anybody who is ill or malnourished
4. Pregnant women and their fetuses
5. Immune compromised like AIDS or certain immune lowering drugs
There are three factors that support bacterial growth:
1. Warmth- Temperature between 40-140 Degrees F= danger zone (the longer foods in the danger zone, the higher the probability they can cause illness.
2. Moisture- aids bacterial growth
3. Nutrients- any substance which contains macronutrients may support microbes
There are four things you can do to protect yourself.
1. Keep hot foods hot- cooked to a proper temperature to kill microbes.
2. Keep cold foods cold. Keep food that has been refrigerated or frozen at 40 degrees or below.
3. Keep raw foods separate- avoid cross contamination.
4. Keep hands and kitchen clean
Note food must be cooked to an internal temperature of somewhere between ________ to kill bacteria.
145-180 degrees
After food has reached the proper temperature, it should be held above ______ to keep bacteria from growing.
140 degrees
Hot food that has been properly cooked can be subjected to room temperatures for less than ______.
2 hours
Why is eating a rare steak (internal heat less than 140) safer than eating a rare hamburger?
Contaminates were once on the meat. Ground beef = mixed up = inside didn't get killed.
What if you made a beef stew. It was heated to simmering point (slow boil) for at least 20 minutes. You then leave the top on and let cool for 4 hours. What is the level of risk here?
Low. This is not recommended but its much safer than if the lid were left off. For purposes of testing, a closed system safer than nothing, but not recommended.
Keep cold foods cold. Keep food that has been refrigerated or frozen at _________.
40 degrees or below
Thaw meat and poultry safely by doing it ______________.
in the refrigerater
If in a major hurry, you can thaw
it in cold water for 15 minutes
The contamination of a food through exposure to utensils, hands, or other surfaces that were previously in contact with a contaminated food.
What are some examples of cross contamination?
-Cut raw meat of any type on cutting board.
-Take cooked meat and cut on same board that was not throughly washed in hot water and soap.
-Wash hands before preparing food.
Hands must be washed by rubbing together with soup under water for _______.
15 seconds
Raw or juices from meat probably
most likely to cause illness.
Soapy water heated to _____ kills most harmful organisms and washes most other away.
140 degrees
Cutting boards and sponges best to clean in what?
Dishwasher because the soap contain chlorine.
Which foods are most likely to make people sick?
1. Raw meat, especially ground meat
2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) aka mad cow disease
BSE takes ______ to develop.
10-30 years
An infective agent consisting of an unusually folded protein that disrupts normal cell functioning, causing disease.
Eggs often contain a bacteria called ___________, which lives in the ___________.
Salmonella; guts of chickens.
To keep bacteria from growing in eggs, they need to be kept refrigerated at ______ or less.
40 degrees
Like all bacteria, salmonella is killed by what?
Raw produce can be contaminated with what?
-Bacteria from the soil or organic fertilizers
-Untreated water
-Human diseases
-Animal/human shit
How do you clean raw produce?
Rince under running water for ten seconds. Those with rough skins should be brushed.
Fish can contain what?
Viral hepatitis, toxins, viruses, and parasites
Human viruses have been detected in _____ of US coastal water and can be transferred to human.
Hepatitis infection can damage what?
Liver and cause GI upset
People believe that certain practices can neutralize pathogens and make fish safe to consume- NOT true because:
1. Drinking alcohol while eating raw fish will not kill all pathogens.
2. Freezing will only kill some of the pathogens.
3. Hot sauce can't kill pathogens.
Honey can contain spores which produce the botulinum toxin after they enter the body. This is not a threat to:
mature adults. It affects babies due to weak immune system.
What are two possible toxins which naturally occur in food that you should be aware of?
1. Cyanogens
2. Solanine
Precursors to the deadly poison cyanide and found in the pits of fruits.
Found in the skin of potatoes; a natural poison and devlops in older potatoes exposed to light.
What are two indications a potato may have developed this substance?
1. Greenish color under the skin, so peeling would make it safe.
2. Bitter taste
Antibiotics are given to famr animals in their feed for what two reasons?
1. They promote faster growth = more profit for farmers
2. Ward off infection.
Stable oily synthetic chemicals used in hundreds of industrial and commercial operations that persist as pollution in the environment. These cause cancer in animals and a number of other serious health effects.
Any of a number of mineral ions such as mercury and lead; so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight. Many of these are poisonous.
Heavy metal
How do we end up with environmental contaminatns in our systems?
1. Pesticides, chemicals, and heavy metals from rain/river.
2. The animals that live there get exposed to them and concentrate in flesh.
3. The higher up the food chain you go, the more concentrated these pollutants become.
4. Species at the top of the food chain (humans more likely to experience the toxic effects listed above).
The accumulation of a contaminant in the tissues of living things at higher and higher concentrations along the food chain.
The highest concentrations of these pollutants are found in what larger fishes (5)?
1. Swordfish
2. Shark
3. Albacore tuna
4. King mackerel
5. Tile fish
Do canned foods lose nutrients?
Are water soluble vitamins lost in the canning processed?
They are partially destroyed due to exposure to heat.
Fat soluble vitamins are not really much affected by nutrient loss in canned foods.
Store bought fresh produce and frozen produce are _________.
almost equal nutrientally
Most fresh produce is not same day fresh.
____ and _____ can decrease nutrient value.
Time and temperature
The main nutrient that is lost due to the processing and subsequent freezing of fruits and vegetables are _________
Vitamin C
Scott's rule for produce:
1. Same day picked fresh produce = best source for nutrients
2. Store bought fresh produce and frozen produce = very good source
3. Canned produce = fair source. Better than nothing.
There are about _____ food additives that may be placed in food in the US.
____ in charge of regulating food additives.
GRAS list stands for what?
Generally recognized as safe
GRAS list additives are considered safe because they have been what?
Scientifically tested or we used them for a long period of time without any adverse causes
What are two food additives?
1. Antimicrobial Agents
2. Nitrites
Antimicrobial agents do what?
Protect food from growth of microbes which can spoil food and cause illness. Salt and sugar both work by drawing water from food thus producing an inhospitable environment for microbes.
Nitrites are used to do what (four things)?
1. Preserve color of meat especially the pink color
2. Enhance flavor by inhibiting rancidity.
3. Protect against bacteria growth.
4. These may be cancer-causing.
Antioxidants like __________ are added to keep food from browning or turning rancid.
Vitamin E and C
What prevents oxidation in many processed foods like in alcoholic beverages and the best known example?
Sulfites and
The only raw food sulfites can be put on are ___________.
grapes washed throughly to remove.
____ and ____ are antioxidants that are probably safe in doses we consume them.
MGS is _______ _______ and is safe except the ______________.
monosodium glutamata; MSG symptom complex

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