Glossary of Nutrition- Chapter 11: Diet and Health

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The ballooning out of an artery wall at a point that is weakened by deterioration.
The large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries.
Tiny cell-like fragments in the blood, important in blood clot formation.
A stationary blood clot.
A thrombus that has grown enough to close off a blood vessel.
A thrombus that breaks loose and travels through the blood vessels.
An embolus that causes sudden closure of a blood vessel.
The event in which the vessels that feed the heart muscle become closed off by an embolism, thrombus, or other cause with resulting sudden tissue death. Also called a myocardial infarction.
Heart attack
The sudden shutting off of the blood flow to the brain by a thrombus, embolism, or the bursting of a vessel (hemorrhage).
What is predictive of a heart attack?
A high C-reactive protein
Diseases that are caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microbes and can be transmitted from one person to another through air, water, or food; by contact; or through vector organisms such as mosquitoes and fleas.
Infectious diseases
Chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degeneration of body organs due in part to such personal lifestyle elements as poor food choices, smoking, alcohol use, and lack of physical activity.
Degenerative diseases
What 3 factors do degenerative diseases (aka chronic disease) arise from?
1. Genetic predisposition- inherited
2. Personal medical history
3. Lifestyle choices
What nutrients play a bigger role in immunity?
Protein and calories
What are the effects of protein energy malnutrition (not enough of either protein or calories)?
-Skin becomes thinner, looses ability to act as a barrier to foreign agents, ability to deal with foreign invaders (antigens)
-Digestive tract/Mucus membranes contain immune tissue and produce antibodies
-Lymph tissue (Immune system organs inside the body
What is the overall response to protein energy malnutrition?
-Takes body longer to kill invaders
-Circulating immune cells are reduced
-Antibody response in our mucus membrane is impaired
How does nutrient deficiency that can negatively effect immunity in regards to Vitamin A, Vitamin C & A, and Zinc?
-Vitamin A: Your skin & membrane lining loses ability to stop infection.
-Vit C & A: Weakens WBC = Reduced "army"
-Zinc: Reduced WBC
Factors known to be related to diseases but not proved to be causal. The more of these, the greater the probability for contacting a certain disease.
Risk factors
Both ___________ and _______ are both forms of cardiovascular disease.
Atherosclerosis and stroke
____________ is the root form of most heart disease and can lead to
strokes, heart attacks, and hypertension.
The most common form of cardiovascular disease; characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.
Too much fat, especially ______ ___, can increase LDL and trans fats.
saturated fats
LDL lodges in
the artery, causing fatty streams. This process damages the arteries, which become inflamed.
The inflammation process leads to
free radical formation; it oxidizes the trapped LDL
These fatty deposits become
Arterial damage and the inflammatory process
lead to mineralization of the plaque and favors the formation of blood clots.
Plaque continues to
grow and hardens as more minerals/lipids are deposited.
By age ___, we all have well developed plaque.
Plaque formation in the arteries
involes the inflamatory process.
One indicator of arterial inflammation is called __ ______ ______.
C-reaction protein.
plaques grow in size and can partially
block or accclude an artery. Makes it less able to expand.
Occluded (narrowed) less expandable arteries increase ______ _______ and strains the _____.
blood pressure and heart
The heart must generate more pressure to get blood to tissues. This process damages artery walls accelerating plaque formation. Blood clots and plaques are especially likely to form at ____ ____.
damage points.
Atherosclerosis is a ____ __________ process.
self-accelerating process
Worsening atherosclerosis increases what?
blood pressure
As blood pressure builds up in an artery, it can cause an _______.
aneurysm (ballooning out of the artery due to pressure)
As platelets encounter the damaged surface,
they respond by clotting.
_____ __ in food oppose this action are thus are protective against cardiovascular disease.
Omega 3's
What are good sources of omega 3's?
Cold water fish, flax, nuts, seeds, many oils like canola
Diets lacking in Omega 3 may contribute to _______ _________.
plaque formation
Omega 3's may also help reduce ____ ______ and _____ _________.
blood pressure and artery inflamation
If a _________ (blood clot) breaks loose, it is now called an _________ or traveling blood clot.
thrombus; embolus
Embolus can then travel until it what?
gets stuck in a small artery
When an Embolus gets stuck, it's called an _______.
What two things can an embolus or thrombus cause if lodged in an artery leading to the HEART?
1. Angina (pain around or radiating out from the heart)- happens when blood flow is restricted to the heart and usually, but not always happens before the artery is completely cut off.
2. If the blood flow is completely cut off- it's call a HEART ATTACK.
What two things can an embolus or thrombus cause if lodged in an artery leading to the BRAIN?
1. If the blood flow is cut off- it's called a STROKE
2. An aneurysm can also cause a stroke.
These conditions in parents, grandparents, or siblings, esp occurring early in life, may raise a warning flag for you:
-Heart and artery diseases
-Liver disease (cirrhosis)
For heart attack, what are the symptoms that both men and women share?
-Chest discomfort- discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few min or goes away and comes back.
-Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach.
-Shortness of breath. Accompanying chest discomfort or preceding it.
-Other signs- cold sweat, nausea, or lightheadedness.
What are the sudden warning signs of stroke?
-Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.
-Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding.
-Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
-Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination.
-Sudden severe headache with no known cause.
High LDL is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it mostly impacts atherosclerosis but also increases risk for
For every 1% you lower LDL, you also lower ____________.
heart disease
High HDL reduces the risk of what?
all forms of cardiovascular disease.
Blood pressure affects almost how much of our population?
Risk of developing high blood pressure increases with ___.
Almost 90% of population
65 or older has hypertension.
Having blood pressure above normal increases what?
risk of stroke and heart attack
Systolic Pressure is less than ________.
120 mm Hg
Diastolic Pressure is less than ________.
80 mm Hg
What are the diet risk factors/other risk factors for HYPERTENSION?
-High saturated fat/trans fat intake
-Excessive alcohol intake
-Low vitamin and/or mineral intake
-High intake of salty or pickled foods
-Sedentary lifestyle
-Smoking and tobacco use
What are the diet risk factors/other risk factors for DIABETES (TYPE 2)?
-High saturated fat/trans fat intake
-Low complex carbohydrate/fiber intake
-Sedentary lifestyle
What are the diet risk factors/other risk factors for ATHEROSCLEROSIS?
-High saturated fat/trans fat intake
-Excessive alcohol intake
-Low complex carbohydrate/fiber intake
-Low vitamin and/or mineral intake
-Sedentary lifestyle
-Smoking and/or tobacco use
What are the diet risk factors/other risk factors for OBESITY?
High saturated fat/trans fat intake
-Excessive alcohol intake
-Low complex carbohydrate/fiber intake
-High sugar intake
-Sedentary lifestyle
What are the major risk factors for heart disease that cannot be modified?
-Increasing age
-Male gender
-Family history of premature heart disease
What are the major risk factors for heart disease that can be modified?
-High blood LDL cholesterol
-Low blood HDL cholesterol
-High blood pressure (hypertension)
-Physical inactivity
-Cigarette smoking
-An "atherogenic" diet (high in saturated fats including trans fats and low in vegetables, fruits, & whole grains)
For people with HTN, weight loss (if overweight), the book says as little as ______ helps.
10 lbs
Weight loss often helps reduce what?
the amount of blood pressure
For people with HTN, what seems to be the most helpful?
Continuous exercises like walking, jogging, and cycling; this may be due to the stress reducing effect of exercise- it decreases production of stress hormone.
For people with HTN, remember that sodium attracts water. Lowering sodium no more than ______.
2300 mg
Diet may influence _________ of the total number of cancers.
Which dietary factors most influence a person's risk of developing cancer?
-Excess dietary: fat, meat, alcohol, calories, & sodium
-Low intake of fruits, vegetables, dietary fibers, whole grains
Excess energy from food is known as ___________.
"caloric effect"
Dietary fat may influence cancer in what three ways?
1. Fat being kcal dense provides more energy; excess energy is associated with cancer.
2. Saturated fat also increases the risk of some types of cancer.
3. Fat when heated tends to oxidize. Increased oxidative stress from too much fat that has been heated too much may influence cancer.
What types of cancers do you think too much alcohol might cause?
Liver, stomach, mouth, throat
Smoked, grilled, and well-done meats do what?
Increase the risks of cancer
__________ develop any time meat is brown, fried, smoked, etc.
Carcinogens; they are cancer causing.
__________ is a known animal carcinogen. It developed when carbohydrate rich foods (potatoes or grains) are cooks at very high temperatures.
High fiber foods are protected by what four ways?
1. Speeding transit time of materials through the GI, which gives less time for the colon to be exposed to carcidigens.
2. Breakdown of fiber by bacteria in the GI yields short chain fatty acids (protective against heart disease).
3. High fiber diets help regulate blood glucose and blood insulin so high levels of blood glucose and blood insulin may cause cancer.
4. Whole grain, whole fruit and vegetables are rich in antioxidants and other phytochemicals, which may reduce oxidative stress.
Fluids (not alcohol) may, if taken in sufficient quantity, may help prevent what?
bladder cancer
Increased risk of breast cancer is thought to be related to what?
Excess food energy, saturated fat, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity.
Increased risk of colorectal (colon) cancer is thought to be related to what?
High intake of fat and saturated fat, higher red meat consumption, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, low fiber intake.

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