Glossary of Nursing Concepts 2 - Nutrition

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Dietary fat should supply no more than ____ % to _____ % of the total caloric intake
25 to 30%
Dietary fats contribute ________ k/cal per gram
9 kilocalories per gram
A chemically diverse group of organic compounds needed by the body to maintain health by regulating metabolism and assisting in the biochemistry of food digestion as cofactors of enzymes.
Carbohydrates contribute _____ k/cal per gram
4 kilocalories per gram
A balanced diet should be between ____ - ____ % of the total caloric intake
50 - 60%
Protein provides ____ k/cal per gram
4 kilocalories
The anti-tuberculosis drug, isoniazide forms a complex with pyridoxine which results in what deficiency?
Vitamin B6
Quality protein intake should be approximately ___ to ___ of a healthy well balanced diet
15% to 20%
The regulation of vitamins and other dietary suppliments falls under:
Dietary Health and Supplement Act
Water soluble vitamins include:
Vitamin C
8 B-complex vitamins
Lipid soluble vitamins include:
A, E, K, D
Water soluble vitamins are stored in the body
A limited amount of time.
Lipid soluble vitamins are stored in the body
for a longer period of time.
Risk for injury related to low pritein levels and malnutrition
Desired Outcomes: Protein levels and malnutrition will be corrected to prevent adverse effects from drug therapy.
Risk for injury related to adverse effects from excessive use of vitamin or herbs.
Desired Pt. Outcome: Pt. will not develop any adverse effects will using nutritional supplements.
Risk for injury related to drug interactions of vitamins, herbs, or food intake with prescribed drug therapy.
Desired Patient Outcome: Pt. will obtain sufficient knowledge to make knowledgable choices regarding the use of vitamins, and herbs while on drug therapy.
Management of diet and the use of food; the science concerned with the nutritional planning and preparation of foods.
State of relative dynamic equilibrium within body's internal environment; a balance achieved through the operation of various interrelted physiologic mechanisms.
Substances in food that are essential for energy, growth, normal functioning of the body, and maintenance of life.
the sum of the processes involved in taking in food nutrients and in assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy; a foundation for life and health.
nutritional science
The body of scientific knowledge, developed through controlled researc, that relates to the processes involved in nutrition - national, international, community and clinical.
public health nutritionist(MPH, Dr.PH)
a professional nutritionist who has completed an academic universty program and special graduate study, in a school of public health and is responsible for nutrition compenents of public health programs in varied community settings, county, state, national, international.
registered dietition (RD)
a professional dietition who has completed an accredited academic program and 900 hours of post baccalaureate supervised professional practice and has passed the National Registration Examination for Dietiticans administered by the American Diabetic Association.
amino acid
An acid containing the essential element nitrogen (in the chemical group NH2). Amino acids are the structural units of protein and are the basic building blocks of the body.
The general term calorie refers to a unit of heat measure, and is used alone to designate the small calorie. The calorie used in nutritional sciences and the study of metabolism is the large calorie. The 1000 calories or kilocalorie, to be more accurate and to avoid use of very large numbers in calculations.
The three large energy-yielding nutrients: carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
sum of all the various biochemical and physiological processes by which the body grows and maintains itself.
Any substance produced by metabolism or by a metabolic process.
The two classses of small non-energy-yielding elements and compounds: minerals and vitamins are essential for regulation and control of functions in cell metabolism and for building certian body structures.
Blood condition characterized by decreased number of circulating red blood cells, hemoglobin or both.
Adequate Intake (AI)
Suggested daily intake of a nutrient to meet daily needs and support health.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
Recommended daily allowances of nutrients and energy inake for population groups according to age and sex, with defined weight and height. The RDAs are established and reviewed periodically by a representative group of nutritional scientists in response to current research. These standars are very similar amound the developed countries
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Term referring to the framework of nutrient standards now in place in the United States; this includes the RDAs, AI's and Tolerable Upper Intake Level.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
The highest amount of a vitamin or minieral that can be consumed with safety; this standard was developed to advise people regarding inappropriate intakes of nutrient supplements.
What is the FGP?
Food Group Pyramid
The process of breaking down food to release its nutrients for absorption and transport to the cells for use in body functions.
semifluid food mass in the gastrointestinal track after gastric digestion.
The mucous membrane comprising the inner surface layer of the gastrointestinal tract, providing extensive nutrient absorption and transport functions.
A wavelike progression of alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Outer surface layer of intestines interfacing with the blood vessels of the portal system going to the liver.
intramural nerve plexus
network of nerves in the walls of the intestine that make up the intramural nervous system, controlling muscle action and secretions for digestion and absorption.
rounded mass of food formed in the mouth and ready to be swallowed.
a duodenal peptide hormone that inhibits gastric hydrochloric acid secretion and motility.
hormone esecreted by mucosal cells in the antrum of the stomach that stimulates the parietal cells to produce hydrochloric acid. Gastrin is released into the stomach in response to stimulants, especillay coffee, alcohol, and meat extracts. When the gastric pH falls below 3, a feedback mechanism cuts off gastrin secretion and prevents excess acid formation.
transport of digested nutrients across the intestinal
cholecystokinin (CCK))
a peptide hormone secreted ty the mucosa in response to the presense of fat.
minute vascular stronstra
hormone.... viscous fluid secreted by mucous membranes and glands, consistin gmainly of mucin (a glycoprotein), inorganic salts, and water. Mucus lubricates and protects the gastrointestinal mucosa and helps move the food mass along the digestive tract.
Hormone produced in the mucous membrane of the duodenum in response to the entrance of acid contents from the stomach into the doudenum. Secretin in turn stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices, providing needed enzymes and the proper alkalinity for their action.
small protrusions from the surface of a membrane; fingerlike projections covering mucosal surfaces of the small intestine.
a reddish bile pigment resulting from the degradation of heme by reticuloendothelial cells in the liver; a high level in the blood produces the yellow skin symptomatic of jaundice.
cisterna chyli
cistern or receptacle of the chyle; a dilated sac at the origin of the thoracic duct, which is the common trunk that receives all the lymphatic vessels. The cisterna chyli lies in the abdomen between the second lumbar vertebra and the aorta. It receives the lymph from the intestinal trunk, the right and left lumbar lymphatic trunks, and two decending lymphatic trunks. The chyle, after passing through the cisterna chyli, is carried upward into the chest through the thoracic duct and empties into the venous blood at the point where the left subclavian vein joins the left internal jugular vein. This is the way absorbed fats enter the general circulation
the large intestin extending from the cecum to the rectum
removal of an amino group (NH2) from an amino acid.
specific term for conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver; chemical process of enzymatic hydrolysis or breakdown by which this conversion is accomplished.
production of glucose from keto acid carbon skeletons from deaminated amino acids and from the glycerol portion of fatty acids.
keto acid
amino acid residue after deamination. The glycogenic keto acids are used to form carbohydrates.
compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; starches, sugars and dietary fiber made and stored in plants; major energy source in the human diet.
class of compound sugars composed of two molecules of monsaccharide. The three most common are sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
simple single sugar; a carbohydrate containing or a single saccharide (sugar) unit
process by which plants containing chlorophyll are able to manufacture carbohydrate by combining CO2 from air and water from soil. Sunlight is used as energy; chlorophyll is a catalyst.
class of complex carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharide units. common members are starach, dextrins, dietary fiber, and glycogen.
dietary fiber
nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin found in plants; the plant foods supplying fiber also contain other macronutrients and vitamins and minerals; plant foods containing dietary fiber have nutritional benefits such as preventing gastrointestinal disease like diverticulosis or reducing serum lipid and glucose levels that are related to the chronic conditions of heart disease and diabetes.
a polysaccharide, that is a large compound of many saccharide units. it is the main body storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver, with lesser amounts stored in muscle tones.
intermediate products of polysaccharide breakdown that contain a small number (from 3 to 10) of single sugar units of the monosaccharide glucose.
a colorless crystalline trisaccharide found in legumes, composed of galactose and cucrose connected by bonds that human enzymes cannot break; thus it remains whole in the intestines and produces gas as bacteria attack it.
functional fiber
nondigestible carbohydrates isolated from plant foods or manufactured that have been individually tested and found to have beneficial physiologic effects in the body; these substances may be added to natural foods to increase their fiber content
total fiber
dietary fiber plus functional fiber, the total amount of fiber in an individual's diet from all sources.
enzyme that splits the disaccharide lactose into its two monosaccharides, glucose and galactose
the cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ such as the intestines.
enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide maltose into the two units of glucose; a monosaccharide
an entryway, usually referering to the portal circulation of blood through the liver. Blood is brought into the liver via the portal vein and out via the hepatic vein.
Enzyme splitting the disaccharide sucrose into its two monosaccharides of glucose and fructose.
fat present in cells of adipose (fatty) tissue
fatty acid
the structural components of fats
chemical group name for fats and fat-related compounds such as cholesterol, lipoproteins, and phospholipids; general group name for organic substances of a fatty nature, including fats, oils, waxes and related compounds.
carbon-based chemical compounds
term used for a substance that is united with the greatest possible amount of another substance through solution, chemcial combination or the like.
A saturated fat, for example, is one in which the componet fatty acids are filled with hydrogen atoms. a fatty acid is said to be saturated if all available chemical bonds of its carbon chain are filled with hydrogen. If one bond remains unfille,d it is a no-unsaturated fatty acid.
long chain fatty acids composed of 20 carbon atoms
essential fatty acid
a fatty acid required in the diet because the body cannot synthesize it or synthesize it in adeqate amounts
linoleic acid
an essential fatty acid for humans an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid
linolenic acid
an esential fatty acid for humans; an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Which two fatty acids are the only fatty acids known to be essential for the complete nutrition of humans?
Linoleic acid

Linolenic acid
Linoleic acid stregnthens cell _________.
A deficiency in linoleic acid results in what?
can lead to a breakdown in skin integrity, resulting in charactoristic eczema and skin lesions.
What is the name of the acid that can be synthesized from linolenic acid?
Arachidonic acid
What is the difference in appearence between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?
A saturated fat is harder at temperature, an unsaturated fat is usually liquid at room temperature
What are the vital functions of adipose tissue?
Energy storage
Thermal insulation
Vital organ protection
Nerve impulse transmission
Tissue memrane structure
cell metabolism
essential precursor substances
carriers of fat-soluble vitamins.
The word nutrition refers to what?
nutrition refers to the nourishment that sustains life.
Name a cause of obesity.
Over-eating, going to buffets, portion distortion, etc...
What are the functions Minerals?
Minerals servce as coenzyme factors in cell metabolism.
What are the functions of Vitamins
Vitamins function as coenzyme factors or components of cell enzyme systems to govern chemical reactions in cell metabolism and the synthesis of important molecules.
What is the function of water?
Water functions as a regulatroy agent, providing the essential solution base for all metabolic processes
What is the primary function of proteins?
The primary function of proteins is tissue building.
What are the differences between dietary guidelines and food guides?
1) dietary guidelines tend to be general in the advise they provide rather than quantifying food use as do food guides.
2) dietary guidlines are directed toward health changes that will reduce chronic disease risk and enhance health.
name the two major disciples that are the foundations of nutritional science
1) biochemistry
2) physiology
Define the term nutrition
Nutrition is defined as the food people eat and how it nurishes their bodies
Define dietetics
management of diet and the use of food; the science concerned with the nutritional planning and preparation of food.
name the components of the gastrointestinal tract
oral cavity, phyarynx, salivary glands, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, rectum, anus.
Digestive functions are controlled by both physical and ___________ factors
Sensory stimulation can bring about the secretion of gastric juices and muscle motility.
True or False
Name the gastrointestinal secretions
2)Hydrochloric acid and buffer ions
4)water and electrolytes
name the three pairs of salivary glands
1) parotid
2) submaxillary
3) sublingual
What is the substance that the salivary glands secrete? and what does it work on?
salivary amylase. This enzyme is specific to the break down of starch.
True or False:
smoking influnces the composition of juices from the salivary gland.
What is the pH necessary for the enzyme pepsin to act on protein?
1.8 to 3.5pH. At a pH of 5.0 or above, there is little or no pepsin activity.
What is bile? What organ secretes this?
Bile is secreted from the liver. It is an emulsifying agent for fats.
Define passive diffusion and osmosis.
1) passive diffusion is When there is no opposing presure, molecules small enough to pass through the capillary membranes diffuse easily into the caillaries of the villi in the direction of the pressure flow and quantities that depend on their solute gradient
What are the amines responsible for the odor of flatulance?
indole and skatole which are formed from amino acids by bacterial enzymes
What is the normal blood glucose for an adult?
70 to 105mg/dl
name the monosaccharides
Name the three disaccharides
1) Sucrose = 1 glucose + 1 fructose
2) Lactose = 1 glucose + 1 galactose
3) Maltose = 1 glucose + 1 glucose
Name the sugar in Milk
Common table sugar is a dissacharide called __________
What is the current cut off for the diagnosis of diabetes?
name the noncellulose polysaccharides:
1) hemicellulose
2) pectins
3) gums
4) mucilages
5) algal substances
Group name for fats; any of a group of esters obtained from glycerol by the replacement of one, two or three hydroxyl (OH) groups with a fatty acid.
a colorless, odorless, syrupy, sweet liquid; a constituent of fats, usually obtained by the hydrolysis of fats. Chemically, glycerol is an alcohol; it is sterified with fatty acids to produce fats
group of naturally occurring sbstances first discovered in seme, derived from long-chain fatty acids that have multiple local hormone-like actions. These include regulation ofo gastric acid secretion, blood platelet aggregation, body temperature, and tissue inflamation
chemical name for fat, indicating structure; attachment of three fatty acids to a clycerol base. A neutral fat, synthesized from charbohydrate and stored in adipose tissue, it releases free fatty acids into the blood when hydrolyzed by enzymes.
a fat-related compound, a sterol, (C27H45OH). It is a normal constituent of bile and a principal constituent of gall stones. In body metabolism cholesterol is important as a precursor of various steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and adrenal corticoids. Cholesterol is synthesized by the liver. It is widely disributed in nautre, especially in animal tissue such as glandular meats and egg yolk.
a compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of a molecule of water. This process is called esterification. For example, a triglyceride is a sglycerol ester. Cholesterol esters are formed in the mucosal cells by combination with fatty acids, largely linoleic acid.
process of hardening liquid vegetable oils by injection hydrogen gas to produce margaines and shortenings.
Group name for lipid based sterols, including hormones, bile acids and cholesterol.
a separate protein compound that attaches to its specific receptor site on a particular lipoprotein and activates certain functions, such as synthesis of a related enzyme. An example is apolipoprotein CII, an apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein that functions to activate the enzyme lipoprotein lipase.
a fluid secreted by the liver and transported to the gallbladder for concentration and storage. It is released into the duodenum on entry of fat to facilitate enzymatic fat digestion by action as an emulsifying agent
cholecystokinin (CCK)
a peptide hormone secreted by the duodenal mucosa in the presence of fat. The cholecystokinin causes the gallbladder to contract and propell bile into the duodenum, where it is needed to emulsify the fate. The fat is thus prepared for digestion and absorption.
an agent that breaks down large fat globules to smaller, uniformly distributed particles. This action is accomplished in the intestine chiefly by the bile acids which lower surface tension of the fat particles. Emulsification greatly increases the surface area of fat, facilitating contact with fat-digesting enzymes.
group of fat enzymes that cut the ester linkages between the fatty acids and glycerol of triglycerides (fats)
noncovalent complexes of fat with protein. The lipoproteins function as major carriers of lipids in the plasma because most of the plasma fat is associated with them. Such a combination makes possible the transport of fatty substances in a water medium such as plasma.
any of a class of fat-related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids and a nitrogenous base. The phospholipids are essential elements in every cell.
initial lipoproteins formed in the intestinal wall after a meal for absorption of the food fats into circulation
micellar bile-lipid complex
A combination of bile and fat in which the bile emulsifies fat into very miute globules or particles that can be absorbed easily into the small intestine wall in preparation for the final stage of absorption into circulation to the cells.
A milk like liquid that passes across the cell membrane into the lymphatic system and into the portal blood
carboxyl (COOH)
The monovalent radical, COOH, occurring in those organic acids termed carboxylic acids.
indispensable (essential) amino acids
Any one of nine amino acids that the body cannot synthesize at all or in sufficient amounts to meet body needs and that therefore must be supplied by the diet and is hence a dietary essential. These nine specific amino acids are:
1) histidine,
2) isoleucine
3) leucine
4) lysine
5) methionine
6) phenylalnine
7) threonine
8) tryptophan
9) valine
Two amino acids - cysteine and tyrosine are called conditionally indispensable amino acids because the body cannot synthesize sufficient amounts under certain conditions
having opposite characteristics; capable of acting either as an acid or a base, combining with both acids and bases.
mixture of acidic and alkaline components that when added to a solution, is able to protect the solution against wide variations in its pH, even when strongs acids and bases are added to it. If an acid is added, the alkaline partner reacts to conteract the acidic effect. If a base is added, the acid partner reacts to counteract the alkalizing effects. A solution to which a buffer has been added is called a buffered solution.
A coiled structure as found in protein. Some are simple chains coils; others are made of several coils, as in a triple helix.
peptide bond
The characteristic joining of amino acids to form proteins. Such a chain of amino acids is termed a peptide. Depending on its size, it may be a dipeptide fragment of protein or a large polypeptide.
A naturally occuring amino acid formed from methionine and lysine, required for transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrain, where they are oxidized as fuel substrate for metabolic energy.
incomplete protein food
a protein food having a ratio of amino acids different from that of the average body protein and therefore less valuable for nutrition than a complete protein food.
a sulfur-containing amino acid, formed from the indispensable amino acid methionine. It is found in various body tissues, such as lungs and muscles and in bile and breast milk.
protein-splitting enzyme that cuts the peptide bond (linkage) at the amino end of amino acids splitting off the amino group NH2.
a protein enzyme that splits off the chemical group carboxyl (COOH) at the end of peptide chains, acting on the peptide bond of the terminal amino acid having a free-end carboxyl group
one of the protein splitting and milk curdling pancreatic enzymes, activated in the intestine from precursor chymotrypsinogen. It breaks peptide linkages of the amino acids phenylalaline and tyrosine.
final enzyme in the protein-splitting series that cleaves the one remaining amino acid bonds in dipeptides
the main gastic enzyme specific for proteins. Pepsin geins breaking large protein molecules into shorter chain ppolypeptides, proteases, and peptones. Gastric hydrochloric acid is necessary to activate pepsin.
An inactive precursor converted to the active enzyme by the action of an acid, another enzyme, or other means. Also called zymogen.
A protein-splitting enzyme formed in the intestine by action of enterokinase on the inactive precursor trypsinogen.
Metabolic process by which body tissues are built
The breaking down phase of metabolism, the opposite of anabolism.
process by which a chemical compound is split into other simpler compounds by taking up the elements of water, as in the manufacture of infant formulas to produce easier to digest derivatives of the main protein casein, the cow's milk base. This process occurs naturally in digestion.
nitrogen balance
The metabolic balance between nutrigen intake in dietary protein and output in urinary nitrogen compounds such as urea and creatinine. For every 6.25 g dietary protein consumed, 1 g nitrogen is excreted
protein balance
body tissue protein balance between building up tissue (anabolism) and breaking down tissue (catabolism) to maintain healthy body growth and maintenance.
limiting amino acid
The amino acid in foods occuring in the smallest amount, thus limiting its availability for tisue structure
True or False:
Women with hight proportions of their protein coming from animal sources and lesser amounts from vegetable sources lose bone more rapidly
True or False:
Any illness or disease will usually increase the protein requirement.
adenosine triphosphte (ATP)
The high-energy compound formed in the cell and called the energy currency of the cell because of the binding of energy in its high -energy phosphte bonds for release for cell work as these bonds are split.
Chemical bonding
process of linking the radicals, chemical agents or groups of a chemical compound
the capacity of a system for doing work, available power
various complex proteins produced by living cells that act independently of these cells.
power of an element or a radical to combine with or to replace other elements or radicles. Atoms of various elements combine in definite proportions.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Amount of energy required to maintain the resting body's internal activities after an overnight fast with the subject awake.
a unit of heat energy. the calorie is used in the study of metabolism is the large calorie or kilocalorie, defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius.
meaurement of amounts of heat absorbed or given out.
fuel factor
The kilocalorie value (energy potential) of food nutrients, that is the number of
Various internally secreted substances from the endocrine organs, which are conveyed by the blood to another organ or tissue on which they act to stimulate increased functional activiety or secreation. This tissue or substance is called its target organ or substance.
the general term calorie refers to a unit of heat measure and is used alone to designate the small calorie. The calorie is used in in nutritional science and the study of metabolism is the large calorie.
resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Amount of energy required to maintain the reating body's internal activities when in a normal environmental temperature and awake.
The specific organic substance on which a paricular enzme acts to produce new metabolic products
thermic effect of food (TEF)
body heat produced by food; amount of energy required to digest and absorb food and transport nutrients to cells. this basic preparatory work accounts for about 10% of the days total energy requirements.
body composition
the relative sizes of the four basic body compartments that make up the total body; lean body mass (muscle mss), fat, water and bone
Fatness; an excessive accumulation of fate in the body
a fat cell
the beginning of first menstuation for the onset of puterty
anorexia nervosa
extreme psychophysiologic averty to food, resulting in life-threatening weight loss
binge eating
an eating disorder that includes binge eating episodes but without the purging behavior of persons with bulimia nervosa. This is an emotional, reactive eating pattern occurring in response to stress or anxiety and used to soothe painful feelings
bulimia nervosa
a psychiatric eating disorder in which cycles of gorging on large quanities of food are followed by self-induced vomiting and use of diuretics and laxatives to maintaina "normal" body weight.
an orgainic compund containing nitrogen. Amino acids and pyridoxine are axamples of amines
organic compound that is the aldehyde form of retinol, derived b the enzymatic splitting of absorbed carotene. It performs vitamin A activity. In the retina of the eye, retinal combines with opsins to form visual pigments. In the rods it combines with scotopsin to form rhodopsin (visual purple). In the cones it combines with photopsin to form the three pigments responsible for color vision.
chemical name for vitamin A drived from its function relating to the retina of the eye and light-dark adaptation. Daily RDA standards are stated in retinol equivalents (RE) to account for sources of the preformed vitamin A and its precursor provitamin A, beta-caratene.
the process of creating the protein keratin which is teh principal constiutient of skin, hair, nails, and the organizing matrix of the enamel of the teeth. It is a very insoluble protein
Vitamin A
Retinol, retinal and retinoic acid
Name the natural form of Vitamin A
Preformed vitamin A: retinol. A naturally occuring form of vitamin A, found only in animal food sources and usually associated with fats. Vitamin A compounds are deposited primarily in the liver but also in small amounts in the kidneys, lungs and fat tissue
What is the beta-carotene?
provitamin A; plants cannot synthesize vitamin A but instead produce a family of compound called carotenoids.
Name the substances required for absorption of Vitamin A
bile salts
pancreatic lipase
dietary fat
night blindness
inability to see well at night in dimished light, resulting from a lack of required vitamin A

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