Glossary of Nuclear chemistry

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Wilhelm Roentgen
discovered X-rays. 1895
Henri Becquerel
phosphorescence won nobel peace prize. Used element salts
minerals that emit light after being exposed to sunlight
Becquerel's mineral sample
Marie & Pierre Currie
"defined" radioactivity
discovered: polonium
Won Nobel Peace Prize
the rays and particles given off by radioactivity
atoms of the smae element tht have different numbers of neutrons
atoms with unstable nuclei
Ernest Rutherford
Gold foil experiment
Identified: alpha radiation
beta radiation
gamma radiation
postitive charged protons and neutral neutrons
strong nuclear force
force that acts only on subatonic particles that are close together & overcomes the electrostatic repulsions between protons.
type of radioactive decay depends on it's stability. Explain....
Atoms above the line of stability have too many neutrons to be stable
Below the line-too many protons to be stable
band of stability
area on graph where all stable nuclei are found
see page 811 for graph
beta decay
above the line
alpha decay
more than 83 protons. It decays spontaneously
postitron emission
a radioactive decay process that involves the emission of a postitron from a nucleus
particle with same mass as an electron but opposite charge
positron symbol
electron capture
occurs when nucleus of atom draws in a surrouning electron
(Usually from the lowest energy level)
radioactive decay series
a series of nuclear reactions that starts with an unstable nucleus & results in the formation of a stable nucleus.
conversion of an atom of 1 element to an atom of another element
induced transimulation
process which involves striking nuclei with high velocity charged particles
transuranium elements
elements immediately after uranium on periodic table. elements with atomic #93 & higher. All are radioactive
the time required for 1/2 of a radioisotope's nuclei to decay into its product
Know how to figure (page 817)
radioactive decay rates are measured in.........
radiochemical dating
process of determining the age of an object by measureing amount of certain radioisotopes remaining in that object.
mass defect
difference in mass between a mucleus & its component nucleons
critical mass
sample that is massive enough to sustain a chain reaction
subcritical mass
chain reaction stops because neutrons escape- no fissions
supercritical mass
chain reaction speeds up because neutrons cause more fissions
breeder reactors
reactors that produce more fuel than they use
nuclear fusion
put smaller nuclear into larger ones
theronuclear reactions
fusion reactions
ionizing radiation
radiation energetic enough to ionize matter that it collides with
radioisotope that puts out non-ionizing radiation used to detect a specific element
nuclear fission
splits large nuclei into smaller pieces

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