Glossary of Notes from Geography chp. in Social Studies

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a locations position with respect to latitude affects the amount and intensity of sunlight recieved
the hight the altitutde the colder the temperature. 150m up--- 1 degree C lower
Distance from the sea
land cools/heats quicker tahn water so the temp for the land close to the water stayd moderate because water doesn't heart of cool quickly
Wind direction
wind picks up the temp of the surface it is traveling over. wid also picks up the moisutre of the surface. warm winds can carry more moisture than colder winds.
ocean currents
oceans reviece its temp from it's place of origine. Arctic of Tropics
Albedo affect
black absorbs heat while white reflects it.
Orographic percipitation
wind blows over the ocean and picks up moisture and the emp of the ocean. it cools as it rises and drops the excess moisture = precipitation.
wind ward side
side of the mountain that recieves percipitation
rain shadow
side of mountain that doesn't recieve percipitation. The wind is coming down over the mountain and as is decreased in altitude the temperature rises and while picking up a bit of moisture. it becomes a chinkook wind
warm blast of wind from the rainshadow that can increase temperature greatly of the area
Convectional Precipitation
warm are rises - carries more moisture than cold air - warm air cools and forms clouds and percipitation falls
Frontal precipitation
cold air mass pushes warm air mass (sandwich). warm air mass is forced up and forms clouds while it is cooled. and then percipitation falls
tow types of geography
cultural and phsyical
cultural geography
human made - human activities, the way we use spage, do things, buildings, human movement patters, transportation, interactions, amongst people or to environment
physical geography
nature - land forms, climate, soils, vegetation, wildlife
continental climate
low precipitation. high temperature range. extreme hots and colds
maritime climate
high precipitation, mild temperatures.
show average - temperature, and precipitation
plate tectonics
the movement of plates along the earth's surface due to the flow of the magma. the magma moves them along.
plate tectonics and earthquakes
the plates coliding. on goes over the other and as pressure builds one of the plates slip resulting in an earthquake
the contact poing of two plates
three types of plate movement
compressional, extensional, transform
two plates compressing against each other
two plates moving away from each other. magma pushed up through the fault. the magma cools into rock. new rock must clear way fro room by pushing away old material.
two plates up against each other moving away in opposite directions. ex. sand andreas
when an earthquake mized the water from the water table with the soil to make mud. housed sink during earthquakes and then after the earthquake the water starts to settle back down and the house or object become stuck
magnitude and intensity
magnitude measured the spot where the earthquake occured and how powerful it was when it started. intensity measures what is felt away from the spot of the earthquake.
inter-related (plants and animals) ex. watershed... connected network - goat eats grass, grass needs rain
a large ecosystem
4 elements to a biome
climate, soil, wildlife, and vegetation
5 regions in western canada
Boreal Forest, Parklands, Prairies, Interior Mountain Regions, Coastal Forest
Boreal Forest
Very cold winter temp. Unpredictable precipitation. Podzol soil type - acidic because of pine needles. non-fertile; not a lot of decomposing plants. Coniferous trees (needls), Spruce fir pine. moss. Evergreen trees
Mild weather. Sufficient precipitation. Grass over years produces humus - decayed vegetation and carcassas - rich black soil. good for wheat because of soil and percipitation. Long grass, some trees (willows, aspen, and some pine)
Very dry, Driest place is known as the Palliste Triangle. to dry to support trees. North west - moist enough for agriculture but not trees. Brown in color with high mineral content. Because of humus color varies from light to dark brown. Dark brown soil is chernozem soil - ideal for growing wheat and other grain products. Grass weeds, grain, wheat
Interior Mountain Regions
warm prairies, cool tundra. Prairie soils, grass lands. Tundra soils - meadows. Soils of coniferous regions are found on the moutains. Land froms of mountains, plateaus, meadows. Highly varied vegetation - pine forests, sub-alpine forests, high meadows - areas of tundra that resemble vegetation found in the arctic, dwarf shrubs, lichens, and grasses
Coastal Forest
mild temperature and abundant precipitation. podzol soil. acidic due to leaching of surface layers and tree needles, non-fertile, contains small amounts of humus. Douglas Fir, red cedars, hemlock, moss, and nurse trees
places have a location
absolute location - longtitude, latitude,. Relative location - relation to other places
places have physical and cultural characteristics
humans affect areas and
places change
physical and or cultural landscape
places interact
tarnsporation - movement, communication
igneous rock
magma rock
layers of rock. eroded matter. compressed with heat and presure
metamorhpic rock
rock that is formed from heat and pressure
western mountain
all the western mountain
coastal mountain
the coastal mountains are one section. biome - coastal forest. alot of rain
Sunlight affects the world in two way
intensity and amount
intensity - amount of atmosphere the sunlight must go through t o reach the location
amount - amout of lights hours you get in a day

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