Glossary of Normal Development Unit 2

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  How are cognition and language related?
INPUT and ENVIRONMENT. Language reflects thought. Cognition drives language (Interaction with environment) Environmental input and cognitive dev. Cognitive determinsim.
Language Drives thought development. I can only think with language. Verbal thought. Overlap of development curves at abe 2
No cognition until language. I can't think without language. (assumes can't speak therefore can't think.) Linguistic determinism.
" Language and thought are related but separate, though developing at similar times. Limited influence."
Schemata/ Schemes: Way of making something work. Mental structures that people use to intellectially adapt and organize their environment. Overal way of making things work
Equilibration: Cognitive Balance. a developing person is always striving for this..momentary state of cognitive balance. But you can't stay here
Assimilation: CRAM IT INTO WHAT WE KNOW. Use of existing schemes to manage new information. Alters it to fit into what one already knows
Accommodation: MAKING NEW LIVING ARRANGEMENTS for new thoughts. Managing new information by constructing new schemes . Could be good or bad. (squished ball of clay = more clay because it takes up more space.)
Object permanence
Object Permanence: object exists even when it is out of chlids sight.
Ability to understand that quality or amount of an item doesn't change even though form changes. Ice is Water.
cause and effect relationship. Hypothesis testing-- refrigerator light
Flipping between juxtaposition-centration and higher classification and decentration
Semiotic Function
"The ability to represent an object, event, concept mentally"
"Ability to represent objects, events and concepts mentally comes through and understanding of "
Symbols (gestures) and then later Signs
"Ididosyncratic (individual) like a MUM or wedding ring--- it stands for an object or event, but does not represent it like a sign does. Also includes gestures. ""A drink of water"""
"""socially shared"" deeper meaning. Sign language. True words, not babble. Clear representation. Understood. Deeper meaning. (MRS. Represents being married)"
Semiotic function of language
Representative or Develomental?
Representative nature of language
"Vgotsky: ""She's Such an Erin"" Words become part of what they represent"
Development of representation
"Piaget: words represent and are not a part of the representation… ""Cat"" is a representation of furry creature, but not my cat. (Vytogsky: words become a part of their representation ""such an ERIN"""
Developmental stages of cognition
Are a different way of thinking at each stage-- qualitiative changes in the childs way of thinking. More advanced and moving forward.
Child's interaction with his world spurs
spurs change and influences development
    Characteristics of the Stages
Ages aren't the same. Periods within the stages. Invarient in their sequence. Stages are universal.
Invariant sequence of stages
"each has characteristics of previous ones, but a qualitative difference difference exists. PROGRESSIVE: No one becomes preoperational before they've gone through sensori-motor"
  Universality of stages
Not culturally bound
Sensori-motor period
Birth -2 Problem solving through physical action and sensory
Main concepts of SM period: perceptually
"perception : no bargaining. Can't plan ahead to annoy. Can't be subborn, because has no abiity to do so, Can't figure out how to drive you crazy yet. . "
Main concepts of sensory motor: Auditory and visual
"sensing with fingers, listening and paying close attention"
Main concepts of sensory motor Cognition
"Developing memory ""that tastes bad"" Organizing information and hypothesis testing. "
Main movement of development
From Random uncontrolled Reflex to Control ORGANIZING
Sensori-motor period Main concepts
Cause/effect; Primary circular reaction; selective imitation; deferred imitation; representation; decalge (schemas/rituals)
Cause and Effect
"A spoon drops, hears clatter; playing with the refrigerator light; pull blanket with a toy on it to get the toy. (before we walk we must have to push the house. When we knit we yell)"
Primary circular reaction
imitating self
Selective imitation
imitating mom (a syllable)
Deferred imitation
imitating mom or dad while not present --this is how things become representative
Beginning of object permanence
Transition from Sensori-motor to Pre-operational period
Decalage (stuck between stages) Beginning to think conceptually and know schemas…how things make sense… and some symbolic play: shoe as telephone.
Transition to Pre-Op is complete
when they move from symbols to signs
The Pre-operational
2-7 years (not able to mentally act on the world)
"syncretic reasoning; juxtaposition; classification (basic); representational thought. Language: egocenric, echoalia, simple monologue; collective monologue"
syncretic reasoning
Syncretic Reasoning: Unable to separate parts from whole BirthdayCakewithfrostingcandles.
"Juxtaposition: things ""go together but relations is not conceptualized. I know that these shoes go together, but not sure why yet."
(sm period) Early sorting skill will make up own rules. But qualititative changes will build upon each other.
Rrepresentional thought
"using a shoe as phone or using a word to represent something ""bankie"" "
Egocentrism: the way I think is the way everyone things.
Centration: Visiual perception is limited to a single parameter
How do we think?
PhysicalTouch in : order to think (not mentally acting on environment yet. (beads in tube)
What is an OPERATION?
"""Operation"" ability to act on the environment"
Predominant language style of Pre op?
Egocetnric language
Communication Styles of Preop?
"Simple Monologue, collective monologue and communicative language."
Echolalia: not trying to communicate (except with autistic echolalia…it may indeed by attempt to communicate) repeating just for fun
Simple Monologue
"Simple Monologue: self talk that happens with others . Talking in response to what someone else said, but not really to or with them."
Collective Monologue
"Collective Monologue:Talking, but not withothers..""we are playing pretentd….Egocentric. Happens in multiple episodes. Others may take the lead position in order to keep the game going. This takes up most of pre-school days."
communicative language
"Communicative language: big group. Thekind that actually informs, shares information, and affects the listener"
Concrete Operational Period 7-11
Forming Mental Operations. Predicting and Planning;    What will happen if I shoot this spit ball at Suzy Jenkins?
Basic concepts of Concrete Op?
"Reversabililty, First In-last out, mental classification, decentration,"
"Ability to think they can undo something, or reverse an action"
First in Last out
First In Last out: First thing in the desk will be the last out
Mental Classification Ability
Mental Classification: sorting mentally without having to compare them directly
"Lots of points of view to a mountain. (back and front and top) Auditory or Spacial . The ability to focus on more than one thing. Can do itin their heads. Son looking at Jr. High kids: ""I'm gonna be so big!"""
Formal Operations 11-adulthood
Not everyone gets here and not every dimension of a person rises to the formal stage.
Nature of thought
qualitative difference. A different way of thinking. But not magic
Details -- takes more mental operation. If I do…. Then …this will happen
Can't kiss your elbow. This is your possibility…and this is is how I resolve it. And I don't have to go to space to prove that you don't need a space suit.
What if?
The stuff of daydreaming
  Environmental Influences on Language Development
Caregiver foundations for face to face communcation
"reduce physical distress (hunger…) Soothe, move to visual field, modulate speech (rhythm, body, with focus), use CDS (slow, exaggerated), Imitate baby movements (close, oriented and parallel)"
Caregiver's tools for encouraging infant participation
"Phasing, adaptive, facilitative, elaborative, initiating, control, phasing"
"Pays attention to what child is paying attention to. ""Phasing into their world"" Adult will look at child, follow their gaze and name what they are looking at or bring it closer into range ""You see an orange"" ""here it's a rattle"""
"Simple, Faces and SVO --Adapting communication style to appropriate level of child. simplifying actions (no hand gestures) Utterance S-V-O Simple! Faces important, overemphasizing faces to focus in on the communication. Good Baby! "
"Giving child the appropriate tools not chop sticks for sushi, but cheerios and fingers. Not heavy pots or sharp objects, but plastic and playware."
"Elaborate phasing and Parallel Talking: Similar to phasing but more elaborative in style. Goal to engage child in extended conversation/communication. Extending the communicative opportunity. Also Parallel Talking: Mommys making soup, can you smelll the soup, here are the crackers we are going to put in the soup. whatever I'm doing I talk about."
"directs childs attentions to something. Squirrles are cute and furry, can you see him?"
Tell the child what your'e going to do. Warning. Use of supersegmental
child directed speech makes it more likely for the child to develp speech in your presence. (automatically happens with most parents -- sme may need some education simplifying their word choices or not demandinig specific words)
   Modeled communication
"This is how I want you to talk. More perceptually salient (meaningful) helps child pay attention to what is imprtant. Using pauses…taking more time. Simplifying "" get your shoes…"" ( for example:)"
CDS will be
"greater pitch range, lexical simplifictation, shorter simpler utterances, paraphrasing (Shoes? Got your shoes? Repetition), more contextual support (picture of grandma)."
How does CDS Adapt as child grows
begins 6-8 months and tapers 24-27 months
Other tools phase in after CDS
"Elicited imitations (say ""Hi Grandma!"") Fill ins (Want a cookie____?"", Turn abouts (keeping flow going), Contingent queries, vertical strategies."
  Elicited imitations
"Say, ""Hi granma"""
Ø     Fill-ins
"""I want a cookie…."""
Comm. Flow Go. Things that follow a toddlers utterance that keep flow of communication going.Adult takes responsibility.
Contingent queries
"Request information, Confirmation or Clarification: ""Where does it hurt? It hurts here? Huh?"
What are   Vertical Strategies
"Building up a childs utterance (another kind of tunrnabout) recast, expnasion, extension"
slight modification of child's utterance.. Want more out of conversation.
"Word order is preserved, but production is improved: kitty go by…""Yes, the kitty is going by bye"""
"Semantically related comment, reply to child's initial topic. Like an expansion that increases likely hood of having a conversation"
Imitations % of conversation
20% Imitating child's utterance -- building up helps a child to develop more
Toddler's tools
"Some parents are good, some are not. Some need help coming down to the level of the child. Some parents may need to be more conscious about use of language."
Ø     Evocative utterances
Makes utterance with certainty
Ø     Hypothesis testing
Single word with rising intonation
Ø     Interrogative utterances
Direct request for something
Ø     Selective imitation
Portions of caregivers respnse are repeated within next few utterances
     Socialization and Early Communication
What do we see in early communication/socialization
"Faces, smile, vocalizations"
6 weeks
Glancing away: manipulating gaze patterns to make sure they are getting the most out of it (glancing away)
6w-2 months
"Smile, baby giving back socially (mom's need this)"
control and intent
8-10 months
"responding to non verbals ""bye"""
9 months
"following maternal pointing and glancing. Developing turn taking and ""joining the chorus"" in laughter. Developing intentionality. Reciprocity is important."
coordinate gaze and vocal
1.5 months
"more adult pattern, looking at partner to signal end of turn."
Differentiated interactions
React differentially from one caregiver to another
Mutually differentiating
Parents and child adjust
Turn taking
learning this is important for conversation skills. Begins with care taker imitating babbling and pausing for child to imitate (which may take up to 4 months)
Development of Joint reference
"Master (up to 6 mo), Intent 7, gesture 8, Name 12: Infant: attends, follows, and responds then moves to joint reference without looking at adult (7m)…intention to communicate (7), gestures (8-12), then names (12m) within dialogue."
Gaze patterns
" Beginnings of what we talk about. By 6 weeks can visually fix on moms eyes and hold. (3 months full focal range) Recognition of patterns of convesation and to what we attend to with interest. mutual, rituals, games. Mutual Gaze, Gaze coupling and Joint attention"
Mutual gaze
"up to 30 sec, mode to engage each other. May develop into gaze coupling (turn taking) at about 3 months."
Joint attention
gaze directed at objects. Mother's monitor and follow to orinetation.
initial elements of conversation that may develop out of games and rituals.
Game playing and rituals
Shared Meaningful communication at non-verbal level. Important to raising a child in our culture. (6 weeks can initiate games at 13 w signals readiness to play and 23 weeks independent exploration)
Early game playing
"imitation, mutual gazing, episodes of engagment, repetitions (""So BiG!"", (no object play until 6 months, then give and take) "
Game of Retrieve
predictable sequence under control
Play demonstrates
characteristics of later conversation
"scaffolds, slots for infant behavior and meaningful interpretation of an event. Predictable contextes and order with cues. ""Take a nose"" I'm gonna get you"""
Rituals importance
"content comes from this daily interaction: when children talk they display greater semantic complexity and range, longer utterances, and more unique words in familiar situations."
"Throwing into air… say to a child ""this person is here for me and is fun!"""
Joint action
"first year of life, shared behaviors in famiy, routinized activity (like game playing and daily rituals) Child encounters rules, learns turn taking, and conversational skills."
What does early learning of joint action and game playing teach?
turntaking and predictability of actions
Lack of maternal pauses can result in
overstimulation or less responsive infant
Converstation that evolves from turn taking
development of reciprocal and alternating patterns of vocalizations called Protoconversations. Later: gestures and words will fin in as tru conversation develops.
why of language
Don't know why-- cant understand the need for linguistic competence. But social and communicative bonds and enjoyment of reinforcement makes them desireious of more and continues to try to learn the code that the adult speaks with.
How do children become communicators
because we treat them that way. Expect better …Expect them to communicate…prewired for communication: progression from gestures (first signs of communication) to words that fill the inention of the gestures.
Frustration of mistinterpretation and joy of understanding
strong motivators for both child and adult to modify.

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