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Glossary of Neurology - Primary Brain Tumors p 352

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The majority of adult primary brain tumors are ___tentorial?
supratentorial
The majority of childhood primary brain tumors are ___tentorial?
infratentorial
5 adult peak incidence primary brain tumors
Glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 astrocytoma)

Meningioma

Schwannoma

Oligodendroglioma

Pituitary adenoma
5 childhood peak incidence primary brain tumors
Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma

Medulloblastoma

Ependymoma

Hemangioblastoma

Craniopharyngioma
the most common primary brain tumor
Glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 astrocytoma)
prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme
grave progrnosis; <1 year life expectancy
glioblastoma multiforme are found where?
in cerebral hemispheres. Can cross corpus collosum ("butterfly glioma")
stain astrocytes with...
GFAP

(used in Glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 astrocytoma)
"pseudopalisading" tumor cells-border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage
glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 astrocytoma)
2nd most common primary brain tumor
meningioma
most often occurs in convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region
meningioma
meningiomas occur where?
most often occurs in convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region
arises from arachnoid cells external to brain
meningioma
meningiomas arise from which cells?
arachnoid cells external to brain
how do you treat meningiomas?
they are resectable
spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern;

psammoma bodies (laminated calcifications)
meningiomas
histology of meningiomas
spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern;

psammoma bodies (laminated calcifications)
3rd most common primary brain tumor
Schwannoma
Schwannomas arise from which cells
Schwann cells... stupid
where are Schwannomas usually found?
8th nerve -> acoustic schwannoma. Resectable.
Schwannoma are associated with which disease?
Bilateral Schwannoma are found in neurofibromatosis type 2
Relatively rare, slow growing adult tumor
Oligodendroglioma
where are oligodendrogliomas most often found?
frontal lobes
describe oligodendrocyte
Oligodendrocytes = "fried egg" cells--round nuclei with clear cytoplasm. Often calcified in oligodendroglioma
"fried egg" cells--round nuclei with clear cytoplasm.
Oligodendrocytes
Most common hormone secreted by pituitary adenoma
Prolactin
2 sequelae of pituitary adenoma
Bitemporal hemianopia (due to pressure on optic chiasm) and hyper- or hypopituitarism
tumor found in Rathke's pouch
Pituitary adenoma
Diffusely infiltrating glioma
Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
In children, most often found in posterior fossa
Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
where are Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytomas most often found in children?
posterior fossa
prognosis of Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
benign; good prognosis
Rosenthal fibers are found in which tumor
Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
describe Rosenthal fibers
eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers found in Pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
Highly malignant cerebellar tumor. A form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
Medulloblastoma
This tumor can compress the 4th ventricle, causing hydrocephalus
Medulloblastoma
this tumor has Rosettes or perivascular pseudorossete pattern of cells
Medulloblastoma
Radiosensative tumor
Medulloblastoma
Pattern of cells in medulloblastoma
Rosettes or perivascular pseudorossete pattern of cells
medulloblastomas are a form of which tumor group
PNET
prognosis of medulloblastoma
highly malignant cerebellar tumor
tumor most commonly found in 4th ventricle
Ependymal cell tumors
2 primary brain tumors that can cause hydrocephalus
medulloblastoma
ependymoma
prognosis of ependymoma
poor prognosis
where are ependymomas most often found?
4th ventricle
Characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes. Rod-shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus
Ependymoma
what are blepharoplasts
basal ciliary bodies found near nucleus in Ependymoma
name 2 tumors that can have perivascular pseudorosettes?
Medulloblastoma
Ependymoma
Most often cerebellar; associated with von Hippel-Lindau sydrome when found with retinal angiomas. Can produce EPO -> secondary polycythemia. Has foamy cells and high vascularity.
Hemangioblastoma
Has foamy cells and high vascularity
Hemangioblastoma
associated with von Hippel-Lindau sydrome when found with retinal angiomas.
hemangioblastoma
Can produce EPO -> secondary polycythemia.
hemangioblastoma
where are hemangioblastoma usually located?
cerebellum
Benign childhood tumor, confused with pituitary adenoma (can also cause bitemporal hemianopia). Most common childhood supratentorial tumor. Derived from remnants of Rathke's pouch.
Calcification is common.
Craniopharyngioma
Benign childhood tumor, confused with pituitary adenoma
Craniopharyngioma
can cause bitemporal hemianopia
Pituitary Adenoma
&
Craniopharyngioma
Most common childhood supratentorial tumor.
craniopharyngioma
Tumor derived from remnants of Rathke's pouch.
craniopharyngioma
Calcification is common in this childhood tumor
craniopharyngioma
prognosis of craniopharyngioma
benign

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