Glossary of Neurologic System (Misty)
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- List the 12 cranial nerves, in order:
- I. Olfactory
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Olfactory nerve?
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Optic nerve?
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Trochlear nerve?
- Innervates superior oblique;
Turns eye downward and laterally
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Trigeminal nerve?
Pain & touch sensations for the face and mouth
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Abducens nerve?
- Turns eye laterally
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Facial nerve?
- Controls most facial expressions;
Controls secretion of tears/saliva;
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Auditory nerve?
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Glossopharyngeal nerve?
- Taste sensation;
Senses carotid blood pressure
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Vagus nerve?
- Senses aortic blood pressure;
Slows heart rate;
Stimulates digestive organs;
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Accessory nerve?
- Controls traezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles;
Controls swallowing movements
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Hypoglossal nerve?
- Controls tongue movements
- What is/are the major function(s) of the Oculomotor nerve?
- Eyelid & eyeball movement
- What is another name for the Auditory nerve?
- Vestibulocochlear Nerve
- List the factors that affect nerve transmission:
- * Distance
* Lack of oxygen
* Effects of hypnotics
* pH of extra-cellular fluid
* Certain drugs
- How does acidosis of the extra-cellular fluid affect nerve transmission?
- Acidosis depresses nerve activity
- How does alkalosis affect nerve transmission?
- Alkalosis excites nerve cells
- List drugs that can increase nerve activity:
- * Caffeine
- Where is Theophylline commonly found?
- In tea and asthma drugs
- Where is Theobromine commonly found?
- In cocoa
- What is the major function of the peripheral nervous system?
- Carries information to and from the CNS
- List the structures that protect the brain and spinal cord:
- * Skull
- What produces/drains the CSF?
- The meninges
- What circulates in and around the brain to function as a shock absorber?
- Which arteries make up the brain's arterial blood supply?
- * Internal carotids
* Vertebral artery
* Basilar artery
- Which veins make up the brain's venous blood supply?
- The jugular veins
- What are the major functions of the medulla?
- * Regulating blood pressure
* Relaying information from the sense organs
- What are the major functions of the Pons?
- * Relaying movement and position information from the cerebellum to the cortex
* Also involved in breathing, taste and sleep
- What are the major functions of the midbrain?
- * Links the various sections of the brain involved in motor functions, eye movements, & auditory control
- What is the substantia nigra?
- A portion of the midbrain that is involved in voluntary movements
- When the substantia nigra does not function, what is the result?
- The "tremored" movements of Parkinson's disease
- What are the major functions of the thalamus?
- *Relays incoming sensory pathways to appropriate areas of the cortex
*Determines which sensory information actually reaches consciousness
*Participates in motor-information exchange between the cerebellum, basal ganglia & cortex
- What are the major functions of the hypothalamus?
- *Controls hormonal secretions from the pituitary
*Also involved in almost all aspects of behavior, including biological clock (circadian rhythms)
- What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?
- *Voluntary skeletal movement
- What is the major function of the parietal lobe?
- Processes sensory data
- What is the major function of the occipital lobe?
- Interprets visual data
- What are the major functions of the temporal lobe?
- *Perception/interpretation of sounds
*Integration of taste/smell/balance
- What is the major function of the limbic system?
- Mediates behavior patterns for survival
- What are the major functions of the cerebellum?
- *Aids in integration of voluntary movement
*Processes sensory information
*Uses sensory data for reflex control (muscle tone, equilibrium, posture)
- What are the major functions of the basal ganglia?
- *Extrapyramidal pathway
*Processing station between notor cortex/upper brainstem
*Gross intentional movement without conscious thought
- List the parts of the brainstem:
- *Medulla oblongata
- What are the major functions of the brainstem?
- *Pathway between cerebral cortex and spinal cord
*Controls many involuntary movements
- What are the major functions of the 12 cranial nerves?
- When does major brain growth and myelinization occur?
- In the first year of life
- What reflexes are normally present in the newborn?
- Primitive reflexes
- Brain growth continues until what age?
- 12-15 years
- What hormonal changes take place in a pregnant woman with regards to the neurologic system?
- Hypothalamic-pituitary neurohormonal changes
- What are the common effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary neurohormonal changes in a pregnant woman?
*Numbness/tingling of hands
*No rest after sleep
*Inability to sleep
- List the common neurologic changes experienced by an older adult:
- *Changes are physiologic rather than anatomic
*Cerebral neurons decrease
*Velocity of nerve impulse conduction declines
- What takes place as a result of the decline in velocity of nerve impulse conduction in older adults?
- *Slowed response time
*Diminished touch/pain perception
- What equipment will you use for a neurological assessment?
*Vials of aromatic substances
*Vials of solutions
*Test tubes of hot/cold water
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