Glossary of Neuro - Weakness
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- What are the potential places of central weakness?
- cortical, subcortical, midbrain, pontine, medullary, spinal cord
- What is the presentation of a small cortical lesion?
- Monoplegia +/- sensory loss in the same area
- What is the presentation of a large hemispheric lesion (MCA stroke)?
- Weakness that affects the arm greater than the leg (face, arm > leg) as well as homonymous hemianopia, and hemisensory loss.
- What is commonly seen in left-sided lesions?
- What is commonly seen in right-sided lesions?
- What is the presentation of ACA strokes?
- Pronounced leg weakness and numbness with subtle mental status changes.
- What is the presentation of a subcortical lesion?
- Hemiparesis with the pattern of face=arm=leg +/- hemisensory loss, but SPARING OF VISION
- Where are the lesions in neuronopathies?
- In the anterior horn cell.
- What are the characteristics of neuronopathies?
- Pure motor disturbances with severe generalized weakness, wasting, hyporeflexia, and fasciculations.
- Give 2 neuronopathies.
- ALS & SMA
- Describe ALS.
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - disorder characterized by upper and lower motor neuron pathology
- Describe SMA.
- Spinal muscular atrophy - class of infantile/juvenile, hereditary disorders of progressive weakness, muscle loss, hyporeflexia, etc. w/o UMN signs.
- Describe radiculopathies
- Nerve root disorders - sensorimotor disturbances (weakness and numbness ) in the distribution of one or more nerve roots, often associated with pain in the same root distribution and segmental hyporeflexia.
- What usually causes radiculopathies?
- Compressive disks, but can be tumors, diabetes, or CMV.
- What disorder is characterized by weakness, numbness, hyporeflexia and pain of the entire limb?
- What are some causes of plexopathies?
- Diabetes (lumbar), cancer, Lyme disease (brachial), etc.
- Guillan Barre demonstrates what type of weakness?
- Proximal weakness.
- What are 2 disorders of the neuromuscular junction?
- What are the 5 types of myopathies?
- What class of agents are known for causing myopathies with increased CK?
- What is medial medullary syndrome?
- A medullary lesion produces hemiparesis SPARING THE FACE, ipsilateral tongue deviation and contralateral loss of vibration and proprioception.
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