Glossary of Neuro - Cerebral Cortex
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- What are the 6 layers of the neocortex, from superficial to deep?
- I: molecular layer
II: external granular layer
III: external pyramidal layer
IV: internal granular layer
V: internal pyramidal layer
VI: multiform layer
- What layer receives thalamocortical inputs?
- IV - internal granular
- What layer gives rise to corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts?
- V - internal pyramidal layer (giant pyramidal cells of Betz)
- What layer is the major source of corticocortical fibers?
- III - external pyramidal layer (and some external granular layer)
- What layer of the visual cortex does the LGN project to?
- What functional area has the thickest cortex? Thinnest?
- Motor cortex is thickest, visual cortex is thinnest
- How do you determine which is the dominant hemisphere?
- Wada test. Inject sodium amobarbital (Amytal) into carotid, and see what side causes patient to become aphasic
- What are some functions of the dominant hemisphere?
- language, praxis (skilled motor formulation), and calculation
- What are some functions of the nondominant hemisphere?
- visual-spatial analysis, prosody (emotion conveyed by tone of voice), allows superior recognition of faces
- Where is Broca's area located?
- Inferior frontal gyrus in dominant hemisphere (areas 44/45)
- What type of deficits are associated with a lesion of Broca's area?
- Broca's aphasia: expressive, non-fluent aphasia (can articulate speech or write); often associated with contralateral facial and arm weakness
- Where is Wernicke's area located?
- Posterior part of superior temporal gyrus (area 22)
- What type of deficits are associated with a lesion of Wernicke's area?
- receptive, fluent aphasia, can't understand any form of language, has spontaneous fluent speech that makes no sense, impaired repetition, contralateral visual field deficit (often upper quadrant)
- What does "dysarthria" mean, and in what type of aphasia is it seen?
- difficulty in articulating words (caused by muscle impairment); Broca's aphasia
- What type of disorder might a lesion of the superior division of the MCA cause?
- Broca's aphasia
- What type of disorder might an infarct of the left MCA inferior division cause?
- Wernicke's aphasia
- What are paraphasic errors, and in what disorder are they seen?
- inappropriate substitutions of words with similar meanings, or parts of words with similar sounds; Wernicke's aphasia
- What are neologisms, and in what disorder are they seen?
- nonsense words; Wernicke's aphasia
- What is the disorder if the patient is not fluent, cannot comprehend, and cannot repeat?
What is the common vascular cause?
- global aphasia (or early Broca's aphasia); left MCA infarcts of superior and inferior divisions
- What is the disorder if the patient is fluent, can comprehend, but cannot repeat?
- conduction aphasia (caused by interruption of the arcuate fasciculus)
- What disorder might result from an ACA-MCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
- transcortical motor aphasia; not fluent, can understand, can repeat
- What disorder might result from an MCA-PCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
- transcortical sensory aphasia; fluent, cannot understand, can repeat
- What disorder might result from a combined ACA-MCA and MCA-PCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
- mixed transcortical aphasia; not fluent, cannot comprehend, can repeat
- Patient with agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia. What is the name of this disorder, and where might the lesion be located?
- Gerstmann's Syndrome; inferior parietal lobe on dominant side
(also may have contralateral hemi- or lower quadrantopia)
- Patient with (contralateral) spastic paresis, with pronator drift. What area of cortex is affected?
- primary motor and premotor cortex
- Patient's eyes are deviated to ipsilateral side. What area of cortex is damaged?
- frontal eye field (middle/superior frontal love, just rostral to premotor cortex)
- What are some common symptoms of frontal lobe disorders?
- apathy, inappropriated behavior, perseveration, and deficits in judgement, concentration, orientation, and problem-solving ability (may also have gait apraxia and apathetic incontinence)
- Patient with (contralateral) hemihypesthesia. What area of the cortex is affected?
- primary somatosensory
- What symptoms might result from a lesion of the superior parietal lobule?
- astereognosis (inability to determine form of object by touch), sensory neglect, and apraxia
- Cortical deafness results from a lesion of what?
- primary auditory cortex--Heschl's gyrus on superior surface of temporal lobe
*must be bilateral to cause deafness; unilateral causes mild hearing loss*
- What happens when there are bilateral lesions to the hippocampus?
- inability to consolidate short- to long-term memory (case of H.M.)
- What disorder is characteristic of docility and lack of responsiveness, with hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and visual agnosia? Where is the lesion?
- Kluver-Bucy syndrome; bilateral amygdala-anterior temporal lobe
- What results from a lesion of the olfactory bulb, tract, or primary olfactory cortex?
- ipsilateral anosmia
- What might result from an occipital lobe lesion?
- blindness (primary visual cortex)q
- What results from a nondominant lesion of Broca's area?
- expressive dysprosody (inability to express emotion or inflection in speech)
- What results from a nondominant lesion of Wernicke's area?
- receptive dysprosody (inability to comprehend emotion or inflection in speech)
- Lesion of what cortical region often causes left-sided hemineglect?
- parietal or frontal cortex on RIGHT side (right hemisphere attends to both sides, while left hemisphere attends only to right side)
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