Glossary of Neuro - Cerebellum
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- Primary functions of cerebellum?
- Posture and balance, muscle tone, coordination of voluntary motor activity, learning of repeated motor functions
- Major cerebellar pathway?
- PURKINJE cells of cerebellar CORTEX -> cerebellar nuclei (e.g. DENTATE nuc) -> thru sup cerebell peduncle to contralateral VL (via dentothalamic tract) -> to primary MOTOR CORTEX of precentral gyrus -> to PONTINE nuclei (as corticopontine tract) -> to contralat cerebellar CORTEX (as pontocerebellar tract), and terminate as MOSSY FIBERS
- Three cell layers of cerebellar cortex?
- 1. Molecular layer (outer)
2. Purkinje cell layer (middle)
3. Granule layer (inner)
- Input cerebellar peduncles?
- ICP, MCP
- 2 types of cerebellar input fibers?
- Mossy, climbing
- Mossy fibers bring input from where? Excitatory or inhibitory? What do they terminate on?
- From pons (pontocerebellar), spinal cord (spinocerebellar), and vestibular nuc (vestibulocerebellar tracts); EXCITATORY; synapse on granule cell dendrites (which excite via parallel fibers)
- Climbing fibers bring input from where? Excitatory or inhibitory? What do they terminate on?
- From contralat inferior olivary nuc (olivocerebellar tract); EXCITATORY; terminate on cerebell nuc and purkinje dendrites
- Output cerebellar peduncle?
- SCP (from deep cerebellar nuclei: fastigial, interpositus, dentate)
- Output cerebellar fibers? Type of NT?
- Purkinje cell axons; GABA
- Where do Purkinje fibers project to?
- Cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nuclei
- What is anterior vermis syndrome? Common cause? Symptoms?
- -atrophy of ant lobe (leg region)
-caused by etoh abuse
-sx: gait, trunk, leg DYSTAXIA
- What is posterior vermis syndrome? Cause? Symptoms?
- -usu. caused by tumor in flocculonodular lobe, often in children
-sx: truncal DYSTAXIA
- Triad of cerebellar dysfunction
- HYPOTONIA (floppy, rag-doll, pendular reflexes)
DYSEQUILIBRIUM (gait and trunk dystaxia)
DYSSYNERGIA (loss of coordinated muscle activity)
- Types of DYSSYNERGIC symptoms
- dysmetria (inability to accurately control range of motion), INTENTION tremor, failure to check mvts, coarse nystagmus, dysdiadochokinesia (can't 'screw in lightbulb'), scanning dysarthria (difficulty articulating)
- Types of cerebellar tumors? (mostly in kids)
- 1. astrocytomas (cerebellar hemisphere, good prognosis)
2. medulloblastomas (malignant, from granule layer, cause hydrocephalus)
3. ependymomas (often in 4th ventricle, cause hydrocephalus)
- What type of fibers excite Purkinje cells directly?
- Climbing fibers
- What type of fibers excite Purkinje cells indirectly?
- Mossy fibers (via granule cell/parallel fibers)
- What are the 3 types of local circuit neurons in the cerebellum? Are they excitatory or inhibitory?
- basket cells, stellates, cells, and Golgi type II cells
all are inhibitory, use GABA
- What two places do fibers leaving the superior cerebellar peduncle synapse?
- Red nucleus (and then descends as rubrospinal tract) and VL thalamus (to cortex, which then descends as corticopontine fibers or corticospinal fibers)
- Does a lesion of the cerebellum cause ipsilateral or contralateral cerebellar deficits?
- Does a lesion of the red nucleus cause ipsilateral or contralateral cerebellar deficits?
- Does a lesion of the VL cause ipsilateral or contralateral deficits?
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