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Glossary of Neck Muslces

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platysma: origin
inferior border of the mandible, skin, and subcutaneous tissues of lower face
platysma: insertion
fascia covering superior parts of pectoralis major and deltoid muscles
platysma: innervation
cervical branch of facial nerve
platysma: action
draws corners of mouth inferiorly and widens it as in epressions of sadness and fright; draws skin of neck superiorly when teeth are clenched indicating tension
platysma: blood supply
anterior jugular vein; transverse cerival artery and vein; cutaneous cervical artery and vein; facial artery and vein
sternocleidomastoid: origin
lateral surface of mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral half of superior nuchal line
sternocleidomastoid: insertion
sternal head: superior surface of manubrium
clavicular head: superior surface of medial third of clavicle
sternocleidomastoid: innervation
spinal accessory nerve; C2 and C3 nerves
sternocleidomastoid: action
unilateral contraction: tilts head to same side and rotates it so face is turned superiorly toward opposite side
bilateral contraction: extends neck at atlanto-occipital joins, flexes cervical vertebrae so that chin approaches manubrium, extends superior cervical vertebrae while flexing inferior vertebrae so chin is thrust forward with head kept level
sternocleidomastoid: blood supply
superior thyroid artery and vein
anterior scalene: origin
anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C6 vertebrae
anterior scalene: insertion
1st rib
anterior scalene: innervation
cervical spinal nerves C4-C6
anterior scalene: action
flexes neck laterally; elevates 1st rib during forced respiration
anterior scalene: blood supply
transverse cervical artery and vein; internal jugular vein
middle scalene: origin
posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4-C7 vertebrae
middle scalene: insertion
superior surface of 1st rib, posterior groove for subclavian artery
middle scalene: innervation
anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves
middle scalene: action
flexes neck laterally, elevates 1st rib during forced inspiration
middle scalene: blood supply
transverse cervical artery and vein; internal jugular vein
posterior scalene: origin
posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4-C6 vertebrae
posterior scalene: insertion
external border of 2nd rib
posterior scalene: innervation
anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves C7 and C8
posterior scalene: action
flexes neck laterally, elevates 2nd rib during forced inspiration
posterior scalene: blood supply
transverse cervical artery and vein; internal jugular vein
longus colli: origin
anterior tubercle of C1, bodies of C1-C3, transverse processes of C3-C6
longus colli: insertion
bodies of C5-T3, transverse processes of C3-C5
longus colli: innervation
anterior rami of C2-C6
longus colli: action
flexes neck with rotation to opposite side if acting unilaterally
longus colli: blood supply
vertebral artery and vein
longus capitis: origin
basilar part of occipital bone
longus capitis: insertion
anterior tubercles of C3-C6 transverse processes
longus capitis: innervation
anterior rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves
longus capitis: action
flexion of head on neck
splenius capitis: origin
inferior half of nuchal ligament and spinous processes of superior six thoracic vertebrae
splenius capitis: insertion
lateral aspect of mastoid process and lateral third of superior nuchal line
splenius capitis: innervation
posterior rami of middle cervical spinal nerves
splenius capitis: action
laterally flexes and rotates head and neck to same side; acting bilaterally, extends head and neck
splenius capitis: blood supply
greater occipital artery and vein; lesser occipital artery and vein
splenius cervicis: origin
arises from nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7-T3 or T4 vertebrae
splenius cervicis: insertion
tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C3 or C4 vertebrae
splenius cervicis: innervation
posterior rami of spinal nerves
splenius cervicis: action
laterally flex neck and rotate head to side of active muscles, extend head and neck
splenius cervicis: blood supply
greater occipital artery and vein; lesser occipital artery and vein
digastric-posterior belly: origin
mastoid notch of temporal bone
digastric-posterior belly: insertion
intermediate tendon to body and greater horn of hyoid
digastric-posterior belly: innervation
digastric branch of fascial nerve
digastric-posterior belly: action
working with infrahyoid muscles, depresses mandible against resistence; elevates and steadies hyoid during swallowing and speaking
digastric-posterior belly: blood supply
external carotid artery, retromandibular vein
digastric-anterior belly: origin
digastric fossa of mandible
digastric-anterior belly: insertion
intermediate tendon to body and greater horn of hyoid
digastric-anterior belly: innervation
nerve to mylohyoid, a branch of inferior alveolar nerve
digastric-anterior belly: action
working with infrahyoid muscles, depresses mandible against resistance; elevates and steadies hyoid during swallowing and speaking
digastric-anterior belly: blood supply
external carotid artery, retromandibular vein
stylohyoid: origin
styloid process of temporal bone
stylohyoid: insertion
body of hyoid
stylohyoid: innervation
stylohyoid branch of facial nerve
stylohyoid: action
elevates and retracts hyoid, thus elongating floor of mouth
stylohyoid: blood supply
facial artery & vein; lingual artery & vein
geniohyoid: origin
inferior mental spine of mandible
geniohyoid: insertion
body of hyoid
geniohyoid: innervation
C1 via hypoglossal nerve
geniohyoid: action
pulls hyoid anteriorly and superiorly, shortens floor of mouth, and tongue during swallowing and speaking
geniohyoid: blood supply
facial artery & vein; lingual artery & vein
sternohyoid: origin
manubrium of sternum and medial end of clavicle
sternohyoid: insertion
body of hyoid
sternohyoid: innervation
C1-C3 by branches of ansa cervicalis
sternohyoid: action
depresses hyoid after elevation during swallowing
sternohyoid: blood supply
superior thyroid artery & vein; inferior thyroid artery & vein
omohyoid (superior & inferior bellies): origin
superior border of scapula near suprascapular notch
omohyoid (superior & inferior bellies): insertion
inferior border of hyoid
omohyoid (superior & inferior bellies): innervation
C1-C3 by branches of ansa cervicalis
omohyoid (superior & inferior bellies): action
depresses, retracts, and steadies hyoid
omohyoid (superior and inferior bellies): blood supply
superior thyroid artery & vein; inferior thyroid artery & vein
sternothyroid: origin
posterior surface of manubrium of sternum
sternothyroid: insertion
oblique line of thyroid cartilage
sternothyroid: innervation
C2 & C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis
sternothyroid: action
depresses hyoid and larynx
sternothyroid: blood supply
superior thyroid artery & vein; inferior thyroid artery & vein
thyrohyoid: origin
oblique line of thyroid cartilage
thyrohyoid: insertion
inferior border of body and greater horn of hyoid
thyrohyoid: innervation
C1 via hypoglossal nerve
thyrohyoid: action
depresses hyoid & elevates larynx
thyrohyoid: blood supply
superior thyroid artery & vein; inferior thyroid artery & vein
cricothyroid: origin
anterolateral part of cricoid cartilage
cricothyroid: insertion
inferior margin and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
cricothyroid: innervation
external laryngeal nerve
cricothyroid: action
stretches and tenses vocal ligament
cricothyroid: blood supply
superior thyroid artery & vein; inferior thyroid artery & vein

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