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Glossary of Nath UMT Chapter One - Intro - Terminology

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abduction
In medicine, the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.
From the Latin "ab-" meaning "away from" + "ducere" meaning "to draw or lead" = "to draw away from."
adduction
Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body.
anterior
The front, as opposed to the posterior.
antibody
An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body, and which possesses the remarkable ability to combine with the very antigen that triggered its production.
autoimmune
Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself.
circumcision
Surgery that removes the foreskin (the loose tissue) covering the glans of the penis.
homozygous
Possessing two identical forms of a particular gene, one inherited from each parent.
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination. This includes burning on urination.
hypertension
High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg -- a systolic pressure above 140 with a diastolic pressure above 90.
heterozygous
Possessing two different forms of a particular gene, one inherited from each parent.
hypotonia
Decreased tone of skeletal muscles. In a word, floppiness.
interosseous
?
intramuscular (IM)
medication is given by needle into the muscle. This is as opposed to a medication that is given by a needle, for example, into the skin (intradermal) or just below the skin (subcutaneous) or into a vein (intravenous).
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
a collective term referring to the cells near a structure called the glomerulus in the kidney.
specialized cells that stimulate the secretion of the adrenal hormone aldosterone and play a major role in renal autoregulation, the kidney's self-governance.
neoplasm
A tumor. An abnormal growth of tissue.
Not synonymous with cancer. May be benign or malignant.
postpartum
In the period just after delivery. Refers to the mother and postnatal to the baby.
retroperitoneal
?
Peritoneal
Having to do with the peritoneum.
peritoneum
The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs. (From the Greek peri- meaning around + tonos meaning a stretching = a stretching around).
subdural
Below the dura, the outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord.
bicuspid
Having two flaps or cusps. The heart valve that is located between the left atrium and left ventricle.
diotic
?
multicellular
Consisting of more than one cell.
polyuria
The excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) resulting in profuse urination and urinary frequency (the need to urinate frequently).
tricuspid
Having three flaps or cusps. The valve that is situated between the right atrium and right ventricle and permits blood to flow only from the atrium into the ventricle. The aortic valve in the heart also has three cusps.
centimeter (cm)
A unit of measure in the metric system which is 1/100'th of a meter.
myalgia
Pain in a muscle; or pain in multiple muscles.
cardiac
Having to do with the heart.
cirrhosis
An abnormal liver condition characterized by irreversible scarring of the liver. Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are among the many causes. Can cause yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue.
cephalic
Relating to the head or the head end of the body. Situated on, in, or near the head. Synonymous with cranial, relating to the cranium or head.
iliac
Pertaining to the ilium.
ilium
The upper part of the bony pelvis which forms the receptacle for the head of the femur at the hip joint.
ileum
The lowest part of the small intestine, located beyond the duodenum and jejunum, just before the large intestine (the colon).
insomnia
The perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of one or more of the following: difficulty falling asleep; waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep; waking up too early in the morning; or unrefreshing sleep.
brachial artery
The artery that runs from the shoulder down to the elbow.
brachial vein
A vein that accompanies the brachial artery between the shoulder and the elbow.
physiology
The study of how living organisms function including such processes as nutrition, movement, and reproduction.
Pediatrics
A medical specialty concerned with the health of infants, children and adolescents, their growth and development, and their opportunity to achieve full potential as adults.
Podiatrist
A physician that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of diseases of the foot.
Geriatrics
The branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease in older people and the problems specific to aging.
claustrophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of closed spaces, of being closed in or being shut in, as in elevators, tunnels, or any other confined space. The fear is excessive (and quite common).
angiogram
An x-ray of blood vessels which can be seen because the patient receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray.
radiograph
A film with an image of body tissues that was produced when the body was placed adjacent to the film while radiating with X-rays.
pelvic
Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones.
histology
The study of the form of structures seen under the microscope. Also called microscopic anatomy, as opposed to gross anatomy which involves structures that can be observed with the naked eye.
otoscope
Instrument for looking in the ear.
calcaneal spur
A bony spur projecting from the back or underside of the heel bone (the calcaneus) that often makes walking painful. Is also called a heel spur.
Langerhans, islets of
Best known as the insulin-producing tissue. They are groups of specialized cells in the pancreas that make and secrete hormones.
phalanx
Anatomically, any one of the bones in the fingers or toes. (Plural: phalanges.)
biceps
A muscle that has two heads or origins.
nucleus
1) In cell biology, the structure that houses the chromosomes. 2) In neuroanatomy, a group of nerve cells.
mitochondrion
Singular of mitochondria. The mitochondria are normal structures called organelles in cells. They are located in the cell's cytoplasm outside the nucleus.
mitochondria
Normal structures responsible for energy production in cells. Located in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus of the cell. They consist of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or in folds that form plate-like double membranes (cristae).
cervix
The lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb).
sclerosis
Localized hardening of skin.
Scler- (Or sclero-)
A confusing prefix that can refer exclusively to hardness (from the Greek "skleros" meaning hard) but that can also refer to the sclera of the eye.
sclera
The tough white outer coat over the eyeball that covers approximately the posterior five-sixths of its surface. It is continuous in the front of the eye with the cornea and in the back of the eye with the external sheath of the optic nerve.
epithelium
The outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin, and mucous membranes that communicate with the outside of the body.
endothelium
A layer of flat cells lining the closed internal spaces of the body such as the inside of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels (that convey the lymph, a milky fluid) and the heart.
fungi
Plural of fungus.
fungus
A single-celled or multicellular organism.
fracture
A break in bone or cartilage.
Classified according to their character and location
atria
plural form of atrium
sacomata
plural form of sarcoma
sarcoma
A usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
atrium
One of the two smaller chambers of the heart.
hemiplegia
Paralysis of one side of the body.
lithotripsy
A procedure to break a stone into small particles that can be passed in the urine.
hypertrophy
Enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part of the body due to the increased size of the constituent cells.
Occurs in the biceps and heart because of increased work.
apraxia
The inability to execute a voluntary motor movement despite being able to demonstrate normal muscle function. Is not related to a lack of understanding or to any kind of physical paralysis but is caused by a problem in the cortex of the brain.
uterus
A hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen between the bladder and the rectum.
prostate
A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the bladder. Chestnut shaped, it surrounds the beginning of the urethra, the canal that empties the bladder.
urethra
The transport tube leading from the bladder to discharge urine outside the body. In males, it travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine. In females, it is shorter than in the male and emerges above the vaginal opening.
antibiotic
A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. Originally was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another.
paralysis
Loss of voluntary movement (motor function).
palsy
Paralysis, generally partial, whereby a local body area is incapable of voluntary movement (motor function).
coccyx
The small tail-like bone at the bottom of the spine very near to the anus. It is made up of 3-5 rudimentary vertebrae. It is the lowest part of the spinal column.
benign
Not cancer. Not malignant. Does not invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body. This type of tumor may grow but it stays put (in the same place).
malignant
1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse. 2. In regard to a tumor, having the properties of a malignancy that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and that may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
diarrhea
A familiar phenomenon with unusually frequent or unusually liquid bowel movements, excessive watery evacuations of fecal material.
constipation
Infrequent (and frequently incomplete) bowel movements.
diverticulitis
Inflammation of the diverticula (small outpouchings) along the wall of the colon, the large intestine. (One outpouching is a diverticulum; two or more are diverticula).
diverticulosis
The condition of having diverticula, small outpouchings from the large intestine, the colon. (One outpouching is a diverticulum; two or more are diverticula).
diverticula
The plural of diverticulum.
diverticulum
A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall.
fiber
The parts of plants that cannot be digested, namely complex carbohydrates. Also known as bulk or roughage.
emboli
Something that travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel and blocks it. Examples of are a detached blood clot, a clump of bacteria, and foreign material such as air.
cholesterol
The most common type of steroid in the body, but has gotten something of a bad name. However, is a critically important molecule.

It is essential to the formation of:

Bile acids (which aid in the digestion of fats)
Vitamin D
Progesterone
Estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol)
Androgens (androsterone, testosterone)
Mineralocorticoid hormones (aldosterone, corticosterone) and
Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol).
steroid
A general class of chemical substances that are structurally related to one another and share the same chemical skeleton (a tetracyclic cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene skeleton).
Vitamin D
A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
phosphorus
An essential element in the diet and a major component of bone. Also found in the blood, muscles, nerves, and teeth. It is a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy source in the body.

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