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Glossary of NEURO terms 2

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Vertigo
sensation of movement of one's body or of objects moving about or spinning
Sensory integrity
is the ability to organize and use sensory information.
Kinesthesia
awareness of movement
Arousal
is the physiological readiness of the human system for activity
Alert
pt is awake and attentive to normal levels of stimulation
Lethargic
pt appears drowsy and may fall asleep
Obtunded
pt is difficult to arouse from a somnolent state and is frequently confused when awake
Stupor/Semicoma
pt responds only to strong, generally noxious stimuli and returns to unconscious state when the stimulation is stopped.
Coma/deep coma
pt cannot be aroused by any type of stimulation
Attention
is awareness of the environment or responsiveness to a stimulus or task without being distracted by other stimuli.
Orientation
refers to the pt's awareness of time, person, and place
Cognition
is defined as the process of knowing and includes both awareness and judgement.
Fund of knowledge
is defined as the sum total of an individual's learning and experience in life.
Calculation ability
assesses foundational mathematical abilities.
Acalculia
inability to calculate
Dyscalculia
difficulty ion accomplishing calculations
Exteroceptors
responsible for the superficial sensations
Proprioceptors
responsible for deep sensations
Mechanoreceptors
which respond to mechnical deformation of the receptor
Thermoreceptors
which respond to changes in temperature
Nociceptors
which respond to noxious stimuli
Chemoreceptors
which respond to chemical substances
Photic/electromagnetic
which respond to light within the visible spectrum
Free nerve endings
they r found throughout the body. their stimulation results in perception of pain,temperature,touch,pressure,tickle,and itch sensations.
Hair follicle endings
they are sensitive to mechanical movement and touch.
Merkel's discs
they r located below the epidermis in hairy and glabrous skin.they are sensitive to low-intensity touch, as well as velocity of touch.they r important in both two-point discrimination and localization of touch.
Ruffini endings
located in the deeper layers of the dermis.involved with perception of touch and pressure.
Krause's end-bulb
located in the dermis. perceive touch and pressure.
Meissner's corpuscles
located in the dermis. perceive discriminative touch and the recognition of texture.
Pacinian corpuscles
located in subcutaneous tissue layer of skin. perceive deep touch and vibration.
Muscle spindles
they lie in a parallel arrangement to the muscle fibers. help in position and movement sense and in motor learning.
Golgi tendon organs
located in series at both the proximal and distal tendinous insertions of the muscle. function: 1) monitor tension with the muscle 2) provide protective mechanism
Free nerve endings in muscle
located in fascia of muscle. respond to pain and pressure
Pacinian corpuscles in muscle
respond to vibratory stimuli and deep pressure
Free nerve endings in joints
found in joint capsule and ligaments. respond to pain and crude awareness of joint motion
Ruffini endings in joints
located in joint capsule and ligaments. responsible for the direction and velocity of joint movement.
Paciniform endings in joints
they are found in joint capsule. monitors rapid joint movements.
how to test pain
instrument - safety pin or reshaped paperclip. test - sharp point applied on pt's skin. response - pt asked to verbally indicate site of pain
how to test temperature
instrument - 2 test tubes with stoppers - one filled with warm water (104-113 deg F) and one filled with crushed ice (41 - 50 deg F test - test tubes are randomly placed in contact with the skin area to be tested. response - pt is asked to indicate if stimulus is felt and if warm/cold
how to test light touch
instrument - camel hair brush, piece of cotton test - area to be tested is lightly touched or stroked. response - pt asked to indicate if stimulus is felt.
how to test pressure
instrument - therapist's thumb test - apply firm pressure on skin response - indicate if stimulus is felt
how to test kinesthesia
TEST - joint to be assessed is moved passively through small ROM ; RESPONSE - pt asked to indicate direction of movement verbally, describe direction and ROM
how to test proprioception
TEST - jt to be assessed is moved through small ROM and held static ; RESPONSE - pt asked to describe motion verbally
how to test vibration
INSTRUMENT - tuning fork which vibrates at 128 Hz ; TEST - place base of vibrating fork on bony prominence ; RESPONSE - if intact , pt perceives vibration. pt is also asked if fork is vibrating/nonvibrating
how to test tactile object recognition/stereognosis
INSTRUMENT - items differing in shape and size ; TEST - pt is given an object ; RESPONSE - pt is asked to name the object verbally
how to test tactile localization
TEST - using fingertip therapist touches different skin surfaces ; RESPONSE - pt asked to identify area of stimulation
how to test two-point discrimination
this test is a measure of the smallest distance between two stimuli that can still be perceived as 2 distinct stimuli.TEST - 2 tips of instrument are applied to the skin simultaneously. the 2 tips are gradually brought closer until the stimuli are perceived as one. the smallest distance is measured with ruler. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify the perception of one or 2 stimuli
how to test double simultaneous stimulation (DSS)
TEST - therapist touches 1)identical location on opposite sides of the body, 2) proximally and distaly on opp sides of body 3) proximal and distal location on same side of body RESPONSE - pt states verbally when he perceives a touch stimulus and the number of stimuli felt.
how to test recognition of weight (barognosis)
TEST - place series of different wts of same size on the pt's hand. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify wt of object
how to test traced figure identification/graphesthesia
TEST - a series of letters, numbers or design is traced on the palm of pt's hand. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify the figures verbally
how to test recognition of texture
TEST - items of different textures are palced in pt's hand RESPONSE - pt asked to identify textures
Hypotonia
is a decrease in muscle tone
Abarognosis
inability to recognize weight
Allesthesia
sensation experienced at a site remote from point of stimulation
Allodynia
pain produced by non-noxious stimulus
Analgesia
complete loss of pain sensibility
Anesthesia
loss of sensation
Astereognosis
inability to recognize the form and shape of objects by touch
Atopognosia
inability to localize a sensation
Causalgia
painful, burning sensations, usually along the distribution of a nerve.
Dysesthesia
touch sensation experienced as pain
Hypalgesia
decreased sensitivity to pain
Hyperalgesia
increased sensitivity to pain
Hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
Hypesthesia
decreased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
Pallesthesia
ability to perceive or to recognize vibratory stimuli
Paresthesia
abnormal sensation such as numbness, prickling or tingling, without apparent cause.
Thermanalgesia
inability to perceive heat
Thermanesthesia
inability to perceive sensations of heat or cold
Thermesthesia
ability to perceive heat and cold sensations, temperature sensibility
Thermhyperesthenia
increased sensitivity to temperature
Thermhypesthesia
decreased temperature sensibility
Thigmanesthesia
loss of light touch sensibility
Barognosis
ability to recognize weight
Graphesthesia
recognition of numbers, letters,or symbols traced on the skin
Stereognosis
the ability to recognize the shape of objects by touch
Dysmetria
impaired ability to judge the distance or range of a movement
Hypermetria
excessive distance or range of a movement;an overestimation of the required motion needed to reach a target object
Hypometria
shortened distance or ROM; an underestimation of the required motion needed to reach a target object
Dysdiadochokinesia
impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements
Tremor
an involuntary oscillatory movement resulting from alternate contractions of opposing muscle groups
Intention tremor
occurs during voluntary motion of a limb and tends to increase as the limb nears its intended goal or speed is increased.
Postural (static) tremor
back-and-forth oscillatory movements of the body while pt maintains a standing posture
dyssynergia
impaired ability to associate muscles together for complex movement;decomposition of movement
movement decomposition
performance of a movement in a sequence of component parts rather than as a single smooth activity
Asynergia
loss of ability to associate muscles together for complex movements
Dysarthria
disorder of the motor component of speech disarticulation
Scanning speech
a speech pattern that is slow,and may be slurred,hesitant,with prolonged syllables and inappropriate pauses; the melodic quality of speech is altered
Nystagmus
rhythmic,oscillatory movement of the eyes
Check reflex
when application of resistance to an isometric contraction is suddenly removed,the limb will remain in approximately the same position by action of the opposing muscle. with cerebellar involvement the pt is unable to check the motion
Rebound phenomenon
absence of check reflex
Asthenia
generalized muscle weakness associated with cerebellar lesions
Bradykinesia
extreme slowness and difficulty maintaining movement
Rigidity
increase in muscle tone;results in greater resistance to passive movement
Leadpipe rigidity
is a uniform,constant resistance felt by the examiner as the extremity is moved through a ROM
Cogwheel rigidity
is characterized by a series of brief relaxations or catches as the extremity is passively moved.
Ataxia
is a general term used to describe uncoordinated movement;may influence gait,posture and patterns of movements
Resting tremor
present when involved body segment is at rest;typically dissapears of decreases with purposeful movement
Akinesia
inability to initiate movement;seen in parkinson's disease
Chorea
involuntary,rapid,irregular,jerky movements;clinical feature of huntington's disease
Athetosis
slow,involuntary,writhing,twisting,wormlike movements;clinical feature of some forms of CP
Choreoathetosis
movement disorder with features of both chorea and athetosis;seen in some forms of CP
Hemiballismus
sudden,jerky,forceful,wild,flailing motions of one side of the body
Hyperkinesis
abnormally increased muscle activity or movement;restlessness
Hypokinesis
decreased motor responses ;sluggishness,listlessness
Dystonia
a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by impaired or disordered tone, accompanied by repetitive involuntary movements;typically twisting or writhing motions
Rhomberg's sign
inability to maintain standing balance when vision is occluded
Motor program
a set of commands that,when initiated,results in the productionof a coordinated movement sequence
Motor plan
an idea or plan for purposeful movement that is made up of several component motor programs
Feedback
response-produced information received during or after the movement used to monitor output for corrective actions
Feedforward
the sending of signals in advance of movement to ready the sensorimotor systems and allow for anticipatory adjustments in postural acticity
Coordination
the patterning of body and limb motions relative to the patterning of environmental objects and events
Consciousness
a state of awareness;implies orientation to person,place and time
vegetative state
a continuing and unremitting condition of complete awareness of self and the environment,accompanied by sleep-wake cycles with preservation of hypothalamic and brainstem autonomic functions
Persistane vegetative state
a vegetative state with a duration of one yr or more, the result of severe brain injury or diffuse cerebral hypoxia
Wernicke's aphasia/fluent aphasia
speech that flows smoothly but contains errors,neologisms (nonsense words),paraphasias(misuse of words),and circumlocutions(word substitution)
Broca's aphasia/nonfluent aphasia
speech that is slow and hesitant with limited vocablury and impaired syntax
Declarative memory/explicit memory
the conscious recollection of facts and events
Nondeclarative memory/motor memory
the recall of skills and procedures (nonconscious or implicit memory)
Amnesia
loss of memory
Retrograde amnesia
Amnesia for events that occured before the precipitating trauma
Anterograde amnesia
Amnesia for events that occured after a precipitating trauma
End feel
refers to the characteristic feel each specific joint has at the end ROM
Tone
the resistance of muscles to passive elongation or stretch
Hypertonia
state of increased tone above normal resting levels
Spasticity
increased tone or resistance of muscle causing stiff awkward movements; the result of an UMN
Clonus
cyclical,spasmodic alteration of muscular contraction and relaxation in response to a sustained stretch of a spastic muscle
Clasp-knife response
a sudden relaxation or letting go of a spastic muscle in response to a stretch stimulus
Babinski sign
dorsiflexion of the great toe with fanning of the other toes on stimulation of the lateral sole of the foot
Decorticate rigidity
sustained contraction and posturing of the trunk and LL in extension,and the UL in flexion;results from a lesion at the level of the diencephalon (above the superior colliculus)
Decerebrate rigidity
sustained contraction and posturing of the trunk and limbs in a position of full extension;results from a lesion in the brainstem between the superior colliculi and vestibular nucleus
Opisthotonus
strong and sustained contraction of the extensor muscles of the neck and trunk
Flaccidity
absence of muscle tone
Jaw reflex (trigeminal nerve)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting,with jaw relaxed and slightly open.place finger on top of chin;tap downward on top of finger in a direction which causes the jaw to open RESPONSE - jaw rebounds
Biceps reflex (C5,C6)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting with arm flexed and supported.place thimb over the biceps tendon in the cubital fossa,stretching it slightly.tap thumb or directly on the tendon RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs (elbow flexes)
Triceps reflex (C7,C8)
RESPONSE - pt is sitting with arm supported in abduction,elbow flexed.palpate triceps tendon just above olecranon.tap directly on tendon. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs(elbow extends)
Hamstring reflex (L5,S1,S2)
STIMULUS - pt is prone with knee semiflexed and supported.palpate tendon at the knee.tap on finger or directly on tendon. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs(knee flexes)
Patellar reflex(L2,L3,L4)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting with knee flexed,foot unsupported.tap tendon of quadriceps muscle between the patella and tibial tuberosity RESPONSE - contraction of muscle normally occurs (knee extends)
Ankle reflex (S1,S2)
STIMULUS - pt is prone with foot over the end of the plinth or sitting with knee flexed and foot held in slight dorsiflexion.tap tendon just above its insertion on the calcaneus.maintaining slight tension on the gastrocnemius-soleus group improves the response. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs (foot plantarflexes)
Plantar reflex (S1,S2)
STIMULUS - with a large pin or fingertip,stroke up the lateral side of the foot,moving from the heel to the base of the little toe and then across the ball of the foot NORMAL RESPONSE - slow flexion(plantarflexion) of the great toe,and sometimes the other toes. ABNORMAL RESPONSE - termed a positive Babinski,is a extension (dorsiflexion) of the great toe with fanning of the 4 other toes(typically seen in UMN (corticospinal) lesions)
Chaddock reflex
STIMULUS - stroke around lateral ankle and up lateral aspect of foot to the base of the little toe. NORMAL RESPONSE - slow flexion (plantar flexion) of the gr8 toe,and sometimes the other toes. ABNORMAL RESPONSE - termed a positive Babinski,is a extension (dorsiflexion) of the great toe with fanning of the 4 other toes(typically seen in UMN (corticospinal) lesions)
Abdominal (T7-12)
STIMULUS - position pt in supine position,relaxed.make quick,light stroke with a large pin or fingertip over the skin of the abdominals from the periphery to the unbilicus(test each abdominal quadrant separately) RESPONSE - localized contraction under the stimulus,causing the unbilicus to move toward the quadrant stimulated.
Flexor withdrawl reflex - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - noxious stimuli(pinprick)to sole fo foot.tested in supine or sitting position. RESPONSE - toes extend,foot dorsiflexes,entire leg flexes uncontrollably. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED - 1-2 months
Micrographia
an abnormally small handwriting that is difficult to read.
Festinating gait
abnormal gait characterized by an involuntary progressive increase in the speed with a shortening of stride
Propulsive gait
a festinating gait that has a forward accelerating quality
Retropulsive gait
a festinating gait that has a backward accelerating quality
Sialohrrea
excessive drooling. seen in parkinsonism
Hypokinetic dysarthria
difficult and defective speech characterized by decreased voice volume,monotone/monopitch speech,imprecise or distorted articulation,and uncontrolled speech rate.seen in PD
Mutism
condition of being unable to speak or speaking only in whispers
Postural stress syndrome
fluctuations in motor performance and response;seen with long-term use of L-dopa therapy
Akathisia/acathisia
extreme motor restlessness
Bradyphrenia
a disorder of intellectual function characterized by a slowing of thought processes with lack of concentration and attention.
Stereotaxic surgery
surgical lesioning of brain
Pallidotomy
a destructive lesion is produced in the BG,the globus pallidus internus
Thalamotomy
a destructive lesion is produced within the thalamus,the ventral intermediate nucleus
Dysphagia
inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing
Dyskinesia
involuntary movements;often associated with long-term use of L-dopa therapy
Charcot's triad
cardinal symptoms of MS include intention tremor,scanning speech,nystagmus
Crossed extension - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - noxious stimulus to ball of foot of extremity fixed in extension;tested in supine position RESPONSE - opposite LL flexes,then adducts and extends. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED: 1-2 months
Traction - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - grasp forearm and pull up from supine into sitting position RESPONSE - grasp and total flexion of the UL. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED: 2-5 months
Moro - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - sudden change in posiiton of head in relation to trunk;drop pt backward from sitting position RESPONSE - extension,abduction of UL,hand opening,and crying followed by flexion,adduction of arms,crying ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 5-6 months
Startle - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - sudden loud or harsh noise RESPONSE - sudden extension or abduction of arms,crying ONSET - birth INTEGRATED: persists
primitive / spinal reflexes
flexor withdrawl, crossed extension, traction, moro, stratle, grasp
Grasp - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - maintained pressure to palm of hand (palmar grasp) or to ball of foot under toes (plantar grasp) RESPONSE - maintained flexion of fingers or toes. ONSET - palmar - birth; plantar - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED : palmar - 4-6 months; plantar - 9 months
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - rotation of the head to one side RESPONSE - flexion of skull limbs and extension of jaw limbs "bow and arrow" or "fencing " posture ONSET- birth INTEGRATED : 4-6 months
Symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) -tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - flexion or extension of the head RESPONSE - with head flexion : flexion of arms,extension of legs , with head extension : extension of arms,flexion of legs ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED : 8-12 months
Symmetrical tonic labyrinthine (TLR) - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - prone or supine position RESPONSE - with prone posiiton:increased flexor tone/flexion of all limbs ; with supine: increased tone/extension of all limbs ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 6 months
Positive supporting - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - contact to the ball of the foot in upright standing position RESPONSE - rigid extension (co-contraction) of the LL ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 6 months
Associated reactions - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - resisted voluntary movement in any part of the body RESPONSE - involuntary movement in a resting extremity ONSET - birth - 3 months INTEGRATED - 8-9 yrs
tonic/brainstem reflexes
ATNR,STNR,TLR,associated reaction, postive supporting
midbrain/cortical reflexes
NOB,BOB,labyrinthine head righting,optical righting,BOH, protective extension,equilibrium reactions - tilting, equilibirum reactions - postural fixation
neck righting action on the body (NOB) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - passively turn head to one side;tested in supine RESPONSE - body rotates as a whole(log rolls) to align the body with the head ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED: 5 yrs
body righting acting on the body (BOB) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - passively rotate upper or lower trunk segment;tested in supine RESPONSE - body segment not rotated follows to align the body segments. ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED: persists
Labyinthine head righting (LR) - midbrain/cortical reflex
STIMULUS - occlude vision; alter body position by tipping body in all directions RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth-2 months INTEGRATED : persists
optical righting (OR) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - alter body position by tipping body in all directions RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth - 2 months
Body righting acting on head (BOH) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - place in prone or supine position RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth-2 months INTEGRATED : 5 yrs
Protective extension - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - displace COG outside the base of support RESPONSE - arms or legs extend and abduct to support and to protect the body against falling. ONSET - arms: 4-6 months; legs : 6-9 months INTEGRATED : persists
Equilibrium reaction - tilting - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - displace the COG by tilting or moving the support surface (eg. with a movable object such as an equilibrium board or ball) RESPONSE - curvature of trunk toward the upward side along with extension and abduction of the extremities on that side; protective extension on the opposite (downward)side ONSET - prone 6 months; supine 7-8 months; sitting 7-8 months; quadruped 9-12 months; standing 12-21 months INTEGRATED : persists
Equilibrium reacions - postural fixation - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - apply a displacing force to the body,altering the COG in its relation to the base of support; can also be observed during voluntary activity RESPONSE - curvature of the trunk toward the external force with extension and abduction of the extremities on the side to which the force was applied. ONSET - prone 6 months; supine 7-8 months; sitting 7-8 months; quadruped 9-12 months; standing 12-21 months INTEGRATED : persists
Muscle endurance
the ability to contract the muscle repeatedly over a period of time
Fatigue
the failure to generate the required or expected force during sustained or repeated contractions
Exhaustion
the limit of endurance beyond which no further performance is possible
Abnormal synergy
an obligatory high stereotyped mass pattern of movement
Postural orientation
the control of relative positions of body parts by skeletal muscles with respect to gravity and to each other
Reactive control
control that occurs in response to external forces displacing the Center Of Mass or movement of the BOS.
Proactive (anticipatory) control
control that occurs in anticipation of internallt generated destabilizing forces imposed on the body's own movements
Adaptive control
control that allows the individual to appropriately modify the sensorimotor systems in response to changing task and environmental demands
Limits of stability
the maximum angle from vertical that can be tolerated without a loss of balance
Mobility
initial movement in a functional patttern;ROM is available for movement to occur and there is sufficient motor unit activity to initiate muscle contraction
Stability (static postural control)
the ability to maintain a steady position in a wt bearing,antigravity posture
Controlled mobility (dynamic postural control)
the ability to maintain postural control during wt shifting and movement
Static-dynamic control
the ability to shift wt onto support segments, freeing up a limb for dynamic activities
Skill
highly coordinated mobvement that allows for investigation and interaction with the physical and social environment
Closed skill
motor skill performed in a stable, nonchanging environment
Open skill
motor skill performed in a variable,changing environment
Motor learning
a set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled behavior
Retention test
a performance test administered after a period of no practice (retention interval) for the purposes fo assessing learning
Generalizability
the extent to which practice on one task contributes to the performance of other related skills
Artifact
voltage signals generated by a source other than the one of interest
Movement artifact
an electrical signal resulting from the movement of the recording electrodes or their cables
Stimulus artifact
a potential recorded at the time the stimulus is applied
Electromyography
the recording and study of the electrical activity of muscle.
Nerve conduction velocity
the speed with which a peripheral motor or sensory nerve conducts an impulse
Motor unit action potential
action potential reflecting the electrical activity of a single motor unit capable of being recorded by an electrode. characterized by its amplitude,configuration,duration,frequency,sound
Motor unit
the anatomical of an anterior horn cell,its axon,the neuromuscular junctions and all the muscle fibers innervated by that axon
Electrode
a device capable of recording electrical potentials or conducting electricity to provide a stimulus
Active electrode
a bipolar electrode configuration with fixed interelectrode geometry and preamplifiers at the detection site
Ground electrode
an electrode connected to a common source,used to reduce the effect of electrical noise in a recording system;an arbitrary zero potential reference point
Recording electrode
needle or surface electrode used to record electrical activity from nerve and muscle
Reference electrode
in motor nerve conduction velocity test, the electrode placed over the tendon of the test muscle. in monopolar recording of EMG, the inactive electrode is placed over a neutral area
Stimulating electrode
device used to apply electrical current to stimulate propagation of a nerve impulse or muscle contraction;requires positive (anode) and negative (cathode) terminals
Surface electrodes
small metal disks applied to the skin overlying the appropriate musle and used to monitor EMG signals from large,superficial muscles
Conduction velocity
speed of propagation of an action potential along a nerve or muscle fiber. calculated in meters/sec
Crosstalk
activity seen at one electrode site there is generated by a muscle other than the one being monitored
Electrical silence
the absence of measurable EMG activity,typically recorded at rest in normal muscles
Evoked potential
waveform elicited by a stimulus.
Fasciculation potentials
electrical activity characterized by random,spontaneous twitching of a group of muscle fibers which may be visible through the skin.the amplitude,configuration,duration,and frequency are variable
Fibrillation potential
electrical activity associated with fibrillating muscle and reflecting the activity of a single muscle fiber;associated with denervation and myopathy.these potentials are biphasic spikes of short duration,with a peak-to-peak amplitude less than 1 millivolt,a firing rate ranging from 1-50 hertz,and a high pitched regular sound likened to "rain on the roof"
Giant motor units
motor unit potentials with a peak to peak amplitude and duration much greater than normal ranges.often seen after collateral sprouting with regenartion of peripheral nerves
Insertion activity
electrical activity caused by insertion or movementof a needle electrode in a muscle.can be described as normal,reduced,increased,or prolonged
Interference pattern
electrical activity,recorded from a muscle during maximal voluntary effort,in which identification of each of the contributing motor unit potentials is not possible
Latency
in nerve conduction velocity tests,the interval between onset of a stimulus and the onset of a response,measured from the stimulus artifact to the onset of the M wave
polyphasic potentials
action potentials having five or more phases
Positive sharp waves
electrical potentials associated with fibrillating muscle fibers,recorded as a biphasic,positive-negative action potential initiated by needle movement and recurring in uniform patterns. the initial positive phase is of short duration and large amplitude and the second negative phase is of long duration and low amplitude
Repetitive discharges
in extended train of potentials,generally 5 to 100 impulses per second,commonly seen in lesions of the anterior horn cell and peripheral nerves,and with some myopathies
Spontaneous potentials
action potentials recorded from muscle or nerve at rest after insertional activity has subsided and when there is no voluntary contraction or external stimulus
Volume conduction
spread of current from a potential source through a conducting medium,such as body tissues.
Stance phase
the portion of gait in ehich one extremity is in contact with the ground.
Swing phase
the phase of gait during which the reference limb is not in contact with the supporting surface
Double support time
the priod of the gait cycle when both LL are in contact with the supporting surface (double support);measured in seconds
Step
consists of 2 dimensions;a distance and time;two steps comprise a stride
Stride
consists of 2 dimensions; a distance and time
Swing time
the number of seconds during the gait cycle that one foot is off the ground.swing time shd be measured seperately for right and left extremities
Step length
the linear distanc between 2 successive points of contact of the right and left LL. measurement taken from the point of heel contact at heel strike on one extremity to the point of heel contact of the opposite extremity
Step time
the number of seconds between consecutive right and left foot contacts;both right and left step times shd be measured
Stride length
the linear distance between 2 consecutive foot contacts of the same LL. measurement is taken from the point of one heel contact at heel strike and the next heel contact of the same extremity
Sride time
the number of seconds that elapses during one stride (from one foot contact until the next contact of the same foot)
Kinematics
a description of the type,amount,and direction of motion;does not include the forces producing the motion
Kinetics
the study of forces that cause motion
Motor control
an area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural,physical,and behavioral aspects of movement
Associative stage of learning
the second or middle stage of learning in which hte skill strategy has been selected;refinement of the skill is achieved through continued practice
Autonomous stage of motor learning
the third stage of learning in which the spatial and temporal aspects of movement become highly organized through practice;there is automacity of the skill with a low degree of attention required for performance
Cognitive stage of motor learning
the initial stage of learning in which the cognitive plan for the skill is developed;the learner develops an understanding of the task,develops strategies,and determines how the task should be evaluated
Recovery of function
the re-acquisition of movement skills lost through injury
Knowledge of performance
Augmented feedback related to the nature of the movement pattern produced
Knowledge of results
augmented feedback related to the nature of the result produced in terms of the environmental goal

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