Glossary of N517 Respiratory

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What are the surface markings for the lobes of the lungs?
4th rib mid clavicular 5th rib midaxilary, 6th rib posteriorly.
What is the difference between pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pleural effusion?
Pneumothorax is a popped bullae/bleb which causes a collapsed lung (sudden onset SOB), a hemothorax is the presence of blood in the pleural space, a pleural effusion is fluid in the intrapleural space.
What is in the 3 columns of a chest tube?
1. Drainage
2. Water seal, bubble on cough=air leak
3. Suction, determined by water level
What is the role of the medullary chemoreceptors and chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid bodies?
They are sensitive to changes in PCO2 and PH in CSF
Intrapleural pressure is always _________.
A person's Vital capacity (lungs) is comprised of what?
expiratory reserve volume (1200cc)
Tidal volume (500cc)
Inspiratory reserve volume (3100cc)
A residual volume of 1200cc remains which is not counted in the VC.
Sometimes the FEV (forced expiratory volume) is decreased in people with lung disorders. What is this?
FEV is the percent of the vital capacity that is expelled in the first second. N=75%
What is the difference between restrictive and obstructive lung disorders?
Restrictive = can't get air in
Obstructive = can't get air out
What is fremetis and what does it indicate?
Fremitis is the increase of vocal vibration in the lungs found on palpation. It indicates a consolidation in the lungs (sputum, tumor)
What does hyperesonance upon percussion of the lungs indicate?
It indicates air associated with Pneumothorax or emphesema
Your pt presents with increased fremetis, dull sounds upon percussion and crackles, egophony, whispered pectoriloquy and tubular breath sounds upon auscultation. What is your potenial diagnosis?
There is evidence of consolidation. Either pneumonia, pleural effusion, or atelectasis.
If your pts lungs are resonant on percussion and you hear normal to decreased breath sounds and wheezes, what could this be?
Asthma or bronchitis
If your patient has decreased fremitus, hyperresonance upon percussion and dereased breathsounds with prolonged expiration, what could this be?
You hear crackles at bases, some wheezes at end inspiration, nomral fremitus and resonant lungs. You think this could be what?
Pulmonary edema (fluid in the aveoli).
You hear no fremitis, dull percussion, decreased or absent breath sounds, egophony, whispered pectoriloquy of certain areas. This could be...
Pleural effusion
You hear decreased fremitus, hyperresonance, and absent breath sounds, what is this?
What are the first signs of hypoxia?
Restlessness and anxiety.
Okay, what are the rest?
apprehension, headache, angina, confusion, hypotension, tachycardia tachypnea, cyanosis, dyspnea
A chest tube drains fluid from _________?
The pleural space
What are the s/s of a pulmonary embolism
Dyspnea, tachypnea, fever, changes in lung sounds, hypotension, chest px, apprehension, tachycardia
How will you treat a PE?
O2, heparin, thrombolytics
What are the s/s of emphysema?
Pink Puffers: dyspnea, tachypnea, pursed lips, some cough, barrel chest, diminished breath sounds and wheezing, hypercarbia, orthopnea, cachectic
How will you treat the pt with emphysema?
low flow O2, bronchodilators, steroids, stop smoking, conserve energy, nutritional support,
What are the s/s of bronchitis?
Daily productive cough esp on awakening
Dyspnea, cyanosis
clubbing of fingers
"blue bloater"
How will you treat the pt with bronchitis?
Humidified O2
breathing techniques
What are some s/s of asthma?
SOB, tightness, tachycardia, tachypnea, cough, central cyanosis, flaring nostrils, hypoxemia, hypercapnea
TB is a gram __ organism.
What are the s/s of TB?
fatigue, anorexia, fever, night sweats, mild wt loss, cough

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