Glossary of N224 Pathophysiology - Exam 3 - MSU - Huether, chapters 9,10,11

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Define "Cell Proliferation"
Process by which cells divide and produce new cells
Define "Cell Differentiation"
Process by which cells are matured into different and more specialized cell types during proliferation
What 3 things does Differentiation determine with respect to cells?
1. Structure of cell
2. Function of cell
3. Life Span of cell
Name 3 types of Stem Cells
Define Pluripoten Stem Cell
a stem cell that gives rise to numerous cell types
Define Unipotent stem cell
a stem cell that produces only one type of differentiated cell
Define Oligopotent stem cell
a stem that produces only a small number of cells
According to Huether, define CANCER
"...any malignant tumor, or neoplasm, and it is NOT used to refer to benign growths..."
Benign growths (tumors) have these characteristics: (6 total)
1. slow growth
2. well diff. w/ low mitotic index
3. Well diff. - looks like tissue it arose from
4. well defined capsule
5. not invasive
6. do not metastasize
Malignant growths (tumors) have these characeteristics: (6 total)
1. rapid growth
2. high mitotic index
3. poorly differentiated
4. not encapsulated
5. are invasive
6. metastasize
Name the tissue that a Carcinoma is associated with.
epithelial tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
Name the tissue that a Adenocarcinoma is associated with.
ductal or glandular epithelium tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
Name the tissue that a Sarcoma is associated with.
connective tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
Name the tissue that a Lymphoma is associated with.
lyphatic tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
Name the tissue that a Leukemia is associated with.
blood forming cells (is associated with which neoplasm)
Define metastasis
to spread to different (or distant) location in body. Often accomplished through blood or lymphatic system
According to the class handout, what are the important points to remember about the causes of cancer?
1. No one single cause
2. result of interactions between multiple risk factors
3. disease of aging
4. repeated exposure to a single agent.
What cancers are associated with cigarette smoking?
a) obvious: pharynx, larynx, esophagus

b) not obvious: bladder, pancreas, kidney, stomach, liver and cervix.
What cancers are associated with smokeless tobacco?
Oral cancers

(are associated with what product?)
What type of virus can induce cancer?
An Oncogenic virus

(can induce what?)
Name vitamins and minerals known to decrease risk of cancer
Vitamins A,C,E and selenium (selenium not to 200micrograms/day)

Use "4 ACES" to remember four good vitamins and mineral.
According to the class handout, what bacterium is associated with the increase in rate of some cancers?
Heliobacter pylori
What two types of cancer is Heliobacter pylori associated with?
gastric lymphoma
gastric carcinoma
Anaplasia refers to cells that...
lack uniform size and shape, and that have loss of differentiation.
Name seven (7) manifestions of cancer according to the class handout.
1. Pain
2. Fatigue
3. Cachexia
4. Anemia
5. Leukopenia
6. Thrombocytopenia
7. Infection
Of the clinical manifestations, which is the most frequently reported symptom of cancer?
Define Cachexia
Cachexia is literally "bad condition" and is a SYNDROME that includes anorexia, anemia, weakness, altered metabolism, and early satiety.

The most severe form of malnutrition associated with cancer.
Define Xenobiotics

Say "ZEE-no-BY-otics"
toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals often found in our diet.

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