Glossary of N224 Pathophysiology - Exam 3 - MSU - Huether, chapters 9,10,11
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- Define "Cell Proliferation"
- Process by which cells divide and produce new cells
- Define "Cell Differentiation"
- Process by which cells are matured into different and more specialized cell types during proliferation
- What 3 things does Differentiation determine with respect to cells?
- 1. Structure of cell
2. Function of cell
3. Life Span of cell
- Name 3 types of Stem Cells
- Define Pluripoten Stem Cell
- a stem cell that gives rise to numerous cell types
- Define Unipotent stem cell
- a stem cell that produces only one type of differentiated cell
- Define Oligopotent stem cell
- a stem that produces only a small number of cells
- According to Huether, define CANCER
- "...any malignant tumor, or neoplasm, and it is NOT used to refer to benign growths..."
- Benign growths (tumors) have these characteristics: (6 total)
- 1. slow growth
2. well diff. w/ low mitotic index
3. Well diff. - looks like tissue it arose from
4. well defined capsule
5. not invasive
6. do not metastasize
- Malignant growths (tumors) have these characeteristics: (6 total)
- 1. rapid growth
2. high mitotic index
3. poorly differentiated
4. not encapsulated
5. are invasive
- Name the tissue that a Carcinoma is associated with.
- epithelial tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
- Name the tissue that a Adenocarcinoma is associated with.
- ductal or glandular epithelium tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
- Name the tissue that a Sarcoma is associated with.
- connective tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
- Name the tissue that a Lymphoma is associated with.
- lyphatic tissue (is associated with which neoplasm)
- Name the tissue that a Leukemia is associated with.
- blood forming cells (is associated with which neoplasm)
- Define metastasis
- to spread to different (or distant) location in body. Often accomplished through blood or lymphatic system
- According to the class handout, what are the important points to remember about the causes of cancer?
- 1. No one single cause
2. result of interactions between multiple risk factors
3. disease of aging
4. repeated exposure to a single agent.
- What cancers are associated with cigarette smoking?
- a) obvious: pharynx, larynx, esophagus
b) not obvious: bladder, pancreas, kidney, stomach, liver and cervix.
- What cancers are associated with smokeless tobacco?
- Oral cancers
(are associated with what product?)
- What type of virus can induce cancer?
- An Oncogenic virus
(can induce what?)
- Name vitamins and minerals known to decrease risk of cancer
- Vitamins A,C,E and selenium (selenium not to 200micrograms/day)
Use "4 ACES" to remember four good vitamins and mineral.
- According to the class handout, what bacterium is associated with the increase in rate of some cancers?
- Heliobacter pylori
- What two types of cancer is Heliobacter pylori associated with?
- gastric lymphoma
- Anaplasia refers to cells that...
- lack uniform size and shape, and that have loss of differentiation.
- Name seven (7) manifestions of cancer according to the class handout.
- 1. Pain
- Of the clinical manifestations, which is the most frequently reported symptom of cancer?
- Define Cachexia
- Cachexia is literally "bad condition" and is a SYNDROME that includes anorexia, anemia, weakness, altered metabolism, and early satiety.
The most severe form of malnutrition associated with cancer.
- Define Xenobiotics
- toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals often found in our diet.
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