Glossary of Mycology 2
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- What is Mycology?
- study of:
-Fungi - yeasts and molds
-They are eukaryotes
- What are the two ways we observe fungi?
- what are the two forms of Fungal cells that may be seen on microscope?
- What are two types of hyphae seen:
- Micro: septate vs. aseptate
Macro: aerial vs. vegetative
- 5 typical characteristics of Yeasts:
- 1. budding - blastoconidia
- What are the 4 General Characteristics of Mold contaminants/opportunists?
- 1. Saprophytes
2. Opportunistic pathogens
3. Rapid-growers; 4-5d at 25-30 degrees.
4. Septate hyphae except zygomycetes.
- What are the Common Contaminants? (10)
Zygomycetes: mucor rhizopus and absidia
- What is mucormycosis?
- a rare opportunistic infection caused by Zygomycetes mucor;
-originates from inhaled spores in the soil
-goes to the bloodstream
-restricts blood flow to nose/mouth
-ultimately goes to the brain.
MAN WITHOUT A FACE
- what are the 3 species of Zygomycetes?
- TEXTURE describes what about molds?
4 terms used to describe it:
- describes consistency of aerial mycelium.
- what about mold does arrangement describe?
- its patterns within colonies.
-Rugose - indented center
-Umbonate - raised center
-Verrucose - irregular elevations
- IN mold, what is the
- vegetative : hypha
- what are hyphae?
- filaments produced by mold
- what is a mass of hyphae called?
- 2 types of mycelium
- what is the function of aerial mycelia?
- support the reproductive structures - spores
- what is the function of vegetative mycelia?
- extends below surface into medium to absorb food
- are most hyphae septate or aseptate?
- what type of spores are produced by most fungi of medical importance?
- asexual - imperfect spores
- what are the 7 types of spores produced by molds?
- what is a blastoconidia?
- the most common type of sporulation; simple budding from another hypha.
- what are chlamydoconidia?
- very resistant, thick-walled structures.
- what are arthroconidia?
- spores from fragmentation of hypha
- what are phialoconidia? arise from..
- spores that arise from a vase on a tube-like strucuture called a phialide.
- what are macroconidia?
- large, septate spores
- what are microconidia?
- small, aseptate spores.
- what are sporangiospores?
- spores formed within a sac called a sporangium
- chlamydoSPORES are associated with ______
chlamydoCONIDIA are associted with ______
- spores = yeast
- what morphology is typical of Acremonium species?
- conidiophore with balls of conidia at the end - looks like a daisy
- what's typical morphology of alternaria?
- Macroconidia - large septate spores with alternating vertical and horizontal septa.
- what morphology is typical of aspergillus niger?
- phialoconidia on top of a conidiophore.
-phialides coming off
- what specimens are tested for Dermatophytes and Superficial Mycoses?
- Dermatophytes are found in ____
Superfic. Mycoses are found in ___ and __
- Dermato = skin
Superficial = Hair and Nails
- what are the three main genera of the dermatophytes and superficial mycoses?
main characteristic in ALL:
what infection do they all cause?
-All are SEPTATE
-All cause Tinea - "gnawing worm" in various forms.
- In what body parts are the 3 dermatophytes found?
What microscopic characteristic distinguishes each?
- Microsporum - skin, hair; Tapered macroconidia.
Trycophyton: skin, hair, nails; Microconidia.
Epidermophyton: skin, nails; club-shaped macroconidia
- how are tinea infections transmitted?
- person to person, by sharing combs and hats.
- what is Tinea capitis?
caused by what two genera?
- infection of the scalp. Originally thought to be ringworm beause causes a ring and circle of hair may be lost.
-Microsporum and Trychophyton
- what funny animal does the microscope of microsporum look like?
what distinguishes trychophyton?
- the silhouette of an ARMADILLO.
In contrast, NOTHING distinguishes trycho - just lots of little microconidia.
- What is tinea barbae, what causes it?
- infection of beard area.
- what is tinea corporis, what causes it?
what's a special form, what causes it?
- infection of the body, trunk.
Tinea imbricata -
caused by Tinea concentricum giving a tattooed look without the tattoo price!
- what is Tinea cruris? what causes it?
- Jock itch - gross-phytes man
Trichophyton rubrum and mentagrophytes
- What is tinea pedis, what causes it?
- athlete's foot
trichophyton or epidermophyton
- what is the disease ll's son had?
(I pity him)
it has two names
- Pityriasis (Tinea) versicolor
aka, Malassezia furfur
caused by malassezia
- what are the 4 types of superficial mycoses?
- 1. Onychomychosis
2. Trichophyton tonsurans
3. Black/white piedra
4. Ectothrix and Endothrix.
- What is onychomychosis? what causes it?
- a fungal nail infection caused by
- what is trichophyton tonsurans the cause of?
- black dots on the scalp
- what do black and white piedra look like?
- black: dense fungus causing black nodules around hair shafts.
white: cottony, looser fungus grows around the shaft.
both cause hair breakage.
- what is the difference between ectothrix and endothrix?
- -both are hair infections, but
Ecto = mold on the hair shaft OUTSIDE,
Endo = many fungal spores withIN the hair shaft.
- what is rose gardener's disease?
- what type of mucosis is it?
- what causes sporotrichosis, where is it seen, from what is it normal flora?
- Sporothrix schenkii
-seen in the U. S.
-normal in soil.
- what happens in sporotrichosis?
- gardener gets pricked, the mold causes lesions on hands/arms and moves up into lymphatic system
- what's intresting about sporothrix schenkii from a lab point of view?
- it is a DIMORPHIC fungus - has two growth phases
- what are the phases of sporothrix?
- -Mycelial 25"C
-Yeast (tissue) phase 37"C
- which phase is infectious? why?
- mycelial - it's where there are hyphae and spores in the soil.
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