Glossary of Music appreciation Ch.1-4

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What period took place between the years 400-1400.
The Middle ages, medieval
What period took place between the 1400's and 1600s.
the Renaissance period
What period took place between the 1600's -1750?
the Baroque period
What period took place between 1750-1820?
Symphony period, Mozart, Beethoven, and Hadyn
What period took place between 1820-1900?
the Romantic period
Name all the famous composers during the Romantic period.
Schubert Tekaiskousky
Brahms Duorak
Schumann Smetana
What period occured during 1900s?
What kind of sylte is contemporary?
much more free, different styles
What is music?
organization of sounds in time
What is sound
vibration, "soul" produced by vibrations
What is frequency?
rate of sound vibrations
What is the frequency of a pitch played in European-style orchestras?
440 cycles
What are dynamics?
levels of energy, the way sound is played
What are the 3 most important elements in music?
What is rythm?
the main driving force for music.
What is melody?
cannot exist without rythm, the aspect of music having to do with the succession (order) of pitches.
What is harmony?
melody and rhythm can exist without it, "the nature of the chords"
What is the word and symbol for loud?
forte "f"
What is the word and symbol for soft?
piano, "p"
What does are the words for very loud & soft, medium loud and soft?
fortissimo-very loud, pianissimo-very soft, mezzo forte-medium loud, mezzo piano-medium soft
What is the word for gradually decreasing?
What is the word for gradually increasing?
diminuendo, descrescendo
What is tone color?q
the sonorous quality of a particular instrument, voice or a combination
What is timbre?
the same as tone color
What is duration?
the length of time we hear in minutes,seconds, or microseconds.
What are beats?
basic unit for measuring time in music.
What is an accent?
giving certain beats, making some beats more emphatic than others.
What is a meter?
any recurring pattern of strong and weak beats
What is a duple meter?
grouped in twos (one two|one two), familiar from marches, ex. "yankee doodle"
What is a triple meter?
meters grouped in threes, (one, two three|one two three), familiar in national songs, ex"Star Spangled Banner
What is a compound?
subtypes of duple and triple meters
ex."Row, row row your boat.
What is syncopation?
one way of obtaining interesting striking effects in music is to diplace the accents in a foreground rythm away from their normal position on the beats of the background meter.
What is tempo? give an example
the speed of music, 60 quarter beats per minute (quarter note)
What are the common tempo indications?
walking,on the slow side: andante
moderate:moderate speed
on the fast side: allegretto
fast:allegro, very fast:presto
What is the word for gradually getting faster?
What is the word for gradually getting slower?
ritenuto (ritardando)
What is the word for a stop, a hold of indefinite length on a certain note or rest, suspends the tempo?
What is a metronome?
a mechanical or electrical device that ticks out beats at any desired tempo
What is a scale?
fixed pitches assembled in a collection
What are flats?
indicates that the note to which it is attached is to be played semitone lower.
What is a sharp?
the note it precedes is to be played semitone higher
What is a half-step?
smallest tone, semitone, distance between any two successive notes of the chromatic scale. ex. between E&F, B&C
What is a whole step?
whole tone=2 half steps,
ex. D-E, e-F#< F#-G#
What is always placed at the beginning of each staff?
What is the G clef?
connects one of the fixed lines of the staff to a specific pitch.
What is the F clef?
bass clef-2 dots straddle the fourth line up. F pitch goes on the line
What is a measure?
a bar line
What is a melody?
an organized series of pitches
What are tunes?
the most familiar of melodies
What is a theme?
the most general term for the basic subject matter of longer pieces of music
What is a monophone?
one melody
What is harmonized?
the continous matrix of changing chords provides a sort of constantly shifting sound back-ground for the song.
ex. adding chords to melody
What are chords?
What is the simplest chord?
number of standard groupings of simultaneous pitches.
3 note cord
What is polyphony?
-2 or more melodies played or sung at the same time?
What is texture?
the term used to refer to the blend of the various sounds and melodic lines occuring simultaneously in music.
What is polyphony imitation?
if a melody is played and the same melody is played at the same time. or one coming in shortly after another
What are the voice ranges?
4-soprano, alto, bass, tenor
What is homophonic?
where there is only one melody of real interest and it is combined with other sounds.
What are phrases?
tunes fall naturally into smaller sections
What is consonance?
chords that sound at rest
What is dissonance?
chords that leave the listener with a feeling of expectation, it requires a consonant chord following to complete the gesture and to come to stability.
What do dissonant chords require?
they need to be resolved with the sounding of consonant chords
What is a major?
music with "do" center. Usually finishes with the main tonic.
when you start from "C"
What is tonic?
the "home" pitch (do)
what is minor mode?
music with the "la" orientation
What are modes?
different "home pitches"
What was developed in the nineteenth centure?
the largest symphony orchestra
What is the violin family instrument, woodwind instrument, and brass intrument for the soprano voice?
violin, flute, trumpet
What is the violin family, woodwind, and brass instruments for the alto voice?
viola, oboe, french horn
What is the violin family , woodwind, and brass instrument for the tenor voice?
cello, clarinet, and trombone
What is the violin family, woodwind, and brass instrument for the bass voice?
bass(viol family), bassoon, and tuba
What invented the hammer for the piano?
Bartolomeo Christophori
What is the strings cortet?
piano, violin, cello, and viola
What is form in music?
the elements form and organization relationship that connects those beginnings, middles, and ends.
What are binary forms?
What are ternary forms?
two basic sections (a,a)(b,b)
three basic sections
What is sonata form?
contrasting two forms, theme must contrast
What is an exposition?
the section of the sonata form movement
What is development?
the second section of the sonata form movement, which features the development process
What is recapitulation?
the third section of the sonata form movement
What are sonatas?
the 1st movements of a symphony
What is the last movement of a symphony?
finale, rando form
What are variations?
they remind you of the theme.
When is the theme presented?
in the beginning of the piece
What form was used mostly in the baroque music?

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