Glossary of Music appreciation Ch.1-4
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- What period took place between the years 400-1400.
- The Middle ages, medieval
- What period took place between the 1400's and 1600s.
- the Renaissance period
- What period took place between the 1600's -1750?
- the Baroque period
- What period took place between 1750-1820?
- Symphony period, Mozart, Beethoven, and Hadyn
- What period took place between 1820-1900?
- the Romantic period
- Name all the famous composers during the Romantic period.
- Schubert Tekaiskousky
- What period occured during 1900s?
- What kind of sylte is contemporary?
- much more free, different styles
- What is music?
- organization of sounds in time
- What is sound
- vibration, "soul" produced by vibrations
- What is frequency?
- rate of sound vibrations
- What is the frequency of a pitch played in European-style orchestras?
- 440 cycles
- What are dynamics?
- levels of energy, the way sound is played
- What are the 3 most important elements in music?
- What is rythm?
- the main driving force for music.
- What is melody?
- cannot exist without rythm, the aspect of music having to do with the succession (order) of pitches.
- What is harmony?
- melody and rhythm can exist without it, "the nature of the chords"
- What is the word and symbol for loud?
- forte "f"
- What is the word and symbol for soft?
- piano, "p"
- What does are the words for very loud & soft, medium loud and soft?
- fortissimo-very loud, pianissimo-very soft, mezzo forte-medium loud, mezzo piano-medium soft
- What is the word for gradually decreasing?
- What is the word for gradually increasing?
- diminuendo, descrescendo
- What is tone color?q
- the sonorous quality of a particular instrument, voice or a combination
- What is timbre?
- the same as tone color
- What is duration?
- the length of time we hear in minutes,seconds, or microseconds.
- What are beats?
- basic unit for measuring time in music.
- What is an accent?
- giving certain beats, making some beats more emphatic than others.
- What is a meter?
- any recurring pattern of strong and weak beats
- What is a duple meter?
- grouped in twos (one two|one two), familiar from marches, ex. "yankee doodle"
- What is a triple meter?
- meters grouped in threes, (one, two three|one two three), familiar in national songs, ex"Star Spangled Banner
- What is a compound?
- subtypes of duple and triple meters
ex."Row, row row your boat.
- What is syncopation?
- one way of obtaining interesting striking effects in music is to diplace the accents in a foreground rythm away from their normal position on the beats of the background meter.
- What is tempo? give an example
- the speed of music, 60 quarter beats per minute (quarter note)
- What are the common tempo indications?
walking,on the slow side: andante
on the fast side: allegretto
fast:allegro, very fast:presto
- What is the word for gradually getting faster?
- What is the word for gradually getting slower?
- ritenuto (ritardando)
- What is the word for a stop, a hold of indefinite length on a certain note or rest, suspends the tempo?
- What is a metronome?
- a mechanical or electrical device that ticks out beats at any desired tempo
- What is a scale?
- fixed pitches assembled in a collection
- What are flats?
- indicates that the note to which it is attached is to be played semitone lower.
- What is a sharp?
- the note it precedes is to be played semitone higher
- What is a half-step?
- smallest tone, semitone, distance between any two successive notes of the chromatic scale. ex. between E&F, B&C
- What is a whole step?
- whole tone=2 half steps,
ex. D-E, e-F#< F#-G#
- What is always placed at the beginning of each staff?
- What is the G clef?
- connects one of the fixed lines of the staff to a specific pitch.
- What is the F clef?
- bass clef-2 dots straddle the fourth line up. F pitch goes on the line
- What is a measure?
- a bar line
- What is a melody?
- an organized series of pitches
- What are tunes?
- the most familiar of melodies
- What is a theme?
- the most general term for the basic subject matter of longer pieces of music
- What is a monophone?
- one melody
- What is harmonized?
- the continous matrix of changing chords provides a sort of constantly shifting sound back-ground for the song.
ex. adding chords to melody
- What are chords?
What is the simplest chord?
- number of standard groupings of simultaneous pitches.
3 note cord
- What is polyphony?
- -2 or more melodies played or sung at the same time?
- What is texture?
- the term used to refer to the blend of the various sounds and melodic lines occuring simultaneously in music.
- What is polyphony imitation?
- if a melody is played and the same melody is played at the same time. or one coming in shortly after another
- What are the voice ranges?
- 4-soprano, alto, bass, tenor
- What is homophonic?
- where there is only one melody of real interest and it is combined with other sounds.
- What are phrases?
- tunes fall naturally into smaller sections
- What is consonance?
- chords that sound at rest
- What is dissonance?
- chords that leave the listener with a feeling of expectation, it requires a consonant chord following to complete the gesture and to come to stability.
- What do dissonant chords require?
- they need to be resolved with the sounding of consonant chords
- What is a major?
- music with "do" center. Usually finishes with the main tonic.
when you start from "C"
- What is tonic?
- the "home" pitch (do)
- what is minor mode?
- music with the "la" orientation
- What are modes?
- different "home pitches"
- What was developed in the nineteenth centure?
- the largest symphony orchestra
- What is the violin family instrument, woodwind instrument, and brass intrument for the soprano voice?
- violin, flute, trumpet
- What is the violin family, woodwind, and brass instruments for the alto voice?
- viola, oboe, french horn
- What is the violin family , woodwind, and brass instrument for the tenor voice?
- cello, clarinet, and trombone
- What is the violin family, woodwind, and brass instrument for the bass voice?
- bass(viol family), bassoon, and tuba
- What invented the hammer for the piano?
- Bartolomeo Christophori
- What is the strings cortet?
- piano, violin, cello, and viola
- What is form in music?
- the elements form and organization relationship that connects those beginnings, middles, and ends.
- What are binary forms?
What are ternary forms?
- two basic sections (a,a)(b,b)
three basic sections
- What is sonata form?
- contrasting two forms, theme must contrast
- What is an exposition?
- the section of the sonata form movement
- What is development?
- the second section of the sonata form movement, which features the development process
- What is recapitulation?
- the third section of the sonata form movement
- What are sonatas?
- the 1st movements of a symphony
- What is the last movement of a symphony?
- finale, rando form
- What are variations?
- they remind you of the theme.
- When is the theme presented?
- in the beginning of the piece
- What form was used mostly in the baroque music?
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