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Glossary of Music Vocab Ch 1-4

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John Cage
4:33 minutes of silence
Music
the art of sound in time
Sound
made up of vibrations
Frequency
vibrations per second
Pitch
noise with a specific frequency
Range
from lowest note to highest note
Dynamics
the loudness/softness of a song; amplitude; strength of vibrations
Tone color
Timbre; quality of a sound; why instruments sound different from each other
Overtones
ringing; richness; extra pitches played softly (using pedal?)
Rhythm
the time aspect of music; the arrangement of long and short sounds
Beat
unit for measuring time in music
Accent
a beat with extra emphasis
Meter
a recurring pattern of strong and weak beats (Duple/Triple)
Syncopation
placing accents in unexpected positions
Tempo
speed at which beats follow one another
Scale
collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order; repeats at each octave
Interval
distance between two pitches
Octave
interval of 8
Diatonic Scale
7 note scale
Chromatic Scale
12 note scale; all half steps
Melody
organized series of pitches in music
Cadence
resting/stopping point in a melody; a pause
Motive
the shortest identifiable fragment of a melody
Theme
a melody that has been developed and elaborated on
Harmony
adds musical depth (vertical)
Consonance
two or more notes sounding at rest; pleasing
Disonance
two or more notes sounding clashing; creates tension
Texture
the way sounds are arranged
Monophony
one melody alone; all singing same thing
Homophony
one dominant melody with accompaniment; singing plus guitar
Polyphony
two or more melodic lines of equal importance simultaneously; like a round
Counterpoint
the study/science of writing polyphonic music
imitative
same melody played at different times; like a round (polyphonic)
non-imitative
dueling melodies; two different ones at once (polyphonic)
Tonality
music centered around one central note
Tonic
the home pitch (12 possibilities)
Modality
major or minor
Key
mode + tonic; 24 possible
Modulate
moving from one key to another
Form
basic outline of a piece of music
Genre
the broad category a piece of music belongs to
Strings
violin, viola, cello, bass, guitar, mandolin, banjo, harp
Woodwinds
flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, English horn
Brass
trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba
Percussion
kettle drums, tympani, xylophone, snare, cymbals

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