Glossary of Music Key Terms Exam 2
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- Pastoral Symphony
- Beethoven's Symphony #6
Each movement has title-->became first form of program music; also had 5 movements
- Choral Symphony
- Beethoven's Symphony #9
In last movement chorus sings "ode to joy" which fuses worlds of sound and literature
- 5th Symphony
- Motivic Unity (repeating few notes over and over)
- Beethoven: 3 Creative Periods
- I: The Early Years (Imitation and synthesis)
II: Heroic Period (stormy, dark, dramatic)
III: The Late Years (experimentation, "other-worldly"
- Motivic Unity
- motive is repeated throughout music from beginning to end
- Heiligenstadt Testimony
- confessional statement that Beethoven wrote in 1802 after deciding against suicide; part last will, part artistic manifesto
would have ended life, but art held him back; letter to his bro describing what it's like to be deaf
- Idee fixe
- A "fixed idea"--obsessive musical theme first used in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique
- songs without words
- Mendelssohn wrote tons of piano solos and called them this; romantic idea that a piano piece can feel like a song
- The "Sublime"
- Death was considered a vehicle to the sublime
- art songs with 1 poem, singers and 1 piano (schubert--erlking); meant for small, private enjoyment
- Erlkonig: general meaning of the poem
- schubert: tale of evil king of elves and a father traveling through the woods with his sick son--the elf king wants to take the soul of the child; tries to entice him w/stories of games and fun but says he will resort to force if necessary; son gets scared, but father tells him he's just imagining it--son ends up dead
- The Trout Quintet
- slows down the melody of "the trout" (the trout is a leider about a happy fish until his is caught by a fisherman--word-painting)
- Dies Irae
- used in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique--gregorian chant used in Catholic mass
- Story of "Symphonie Fantastique"
- Poet falls in love with woman (unrequited)... in despair, tries to commit suicide--ODs on opium and has nightmare that he kills her and is being led to the guilletine; sees her right before he's killed... goes to hell.
- Midsummer Night's Dream
- Written to evoke the emotions of Shakespere's "A Mid-Summer Night's Dream"
- slow, introspective music, usually for piano with rish harmonies and dissonance intending to convey mysteries of the night
- fast dance of polish origins
- Bel Canto
- "beautifully singing" - style of italian opera that features beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice; used by Verdi
- rapid, florid, ornamental vocalism (i.e., Verdi - la traviata)
- Transitioned b/t 18th and 18th c. style. starts losing hearing at end of 18th, loses it completely at beginning of 19th.
only wrote 9 symphonies, but saw them as "monuments of sound"
almost no melodies/tunes---Motivic Unity
- Born in Vienna--Beethoven's contemporary
wrote more than 600 leiders, died of syphilis
- Born in France, obsessed with outdoing Beethoven.
- Polish; wrote etudes and mazurkas
Contracted TB, very weak... never played in public
- Born in Hungary, extremely rich and famous ("rock star")
Invented solo piano recital
- Came from musical tradition of "bel cando" and "coloratura"
Mascot of Risorgimiento (Victor Emanuel Re Di Italia)
- Exiled from Germany
Musikdramas: fusion of music and literature
Gesamptkunstwerk: "total art work" - created through-composed operas (no breaks)
creates leitmotif: short motive that leads you through opera--associated with character or theme
wrote own librettos
- Obsessed with Bach, Mozart, Beethoven
Schumanns loved him
Took motivic unity from Beethoven, counterpoint from Bach, and form from Mozart
- Musical nationalist: devoted to homeland
Brahms opened many doors from him
became head of conservatory of music in NYC (Juliard)
- Didn't strive like others for music to be "Russian"
swan lake, sleeping beauty, nutcracker
homosexual, depressed, died of cholera at 53
most famous work: "1812 overture," which he hated
- most famous of "kuchka"
killed himself with alcohol poisoning
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