Glossary of Music History I Unit II
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- three different voices with different style?
- section of a text
- Franconian Motet
- France of Colon, saught to make each voice independent and unique
- Petronian Motet
- lively, free, speechlike
- Harmonic Vocabulary
- used chords as dissonance, and used parrallell fifths instead of fourths
- "Hiccup" melody divided between two groups?
- Franco of Cologne
- developed the most modern notation.
Double Long-long box & stem
Long- half box & stem
Breve- half box no stem
Semi-breve-diamond no stem
- Battle For The Pope
- 14th century Europe was an unstable time to live in; two popes were trying to reign in France & Italy. The Avignon Papacy- Avignon a city in Rome, a batlle for the pope seat in france.
- Philippe de Vitry
- inovator of the new art
- Ars Nova
- New art
- Roman de Fauvel
- satirical poem set to music about the six deadly sins: By Phillipe de vitry
- Six Deadly Sins
- Flattery, Greed, Villany, Fickleness, Envy, Cowardess
- Isorythmic Motet
- 2 voices accompanied by a tenor
2 seperations of pattern-
1.)Talea- rythmic motion; repeating
2.)Color- succession of pitches that keep repeating
- Guillaume de Machaut (ca 1300-1377)
- great composer, last of the trouveres. Leading composer of Ars nova. (Clergy) made top voice dominant and lower voice less. Used lots of 3rds and 6ths for his music. "Compose from your soul and don't conterfeit your work"
- (Secular) Works of G. de Machaut
- 1.)23 motets- traditional texture; tenor w/ 2 upper voices singing diff. texts; usually dealing w/ love. hocket; isorythmic techniques.2.)monophonic songs- continuation of trouveres tradition. 3.)19 Lais and 25 Vielais (ABBA Form)
4.)Baladdes- song in which treble voices dominant & only voices sang; 2 lower voices on instruments. 5.)Rondeau- 3 musical phrases & refrain. 2 voice framework singing same text & a tenor with slow contour. 6.)Messe de notre dame- one of the first polyphonic ordinaries for the mass.
- Polyphonic Mass
- unwanted in the church setting; was thought to be of a secular nature.
- song based on love poems written for two voices with 3 line stanzas followed by a pair of lines
- to return in a different meter
- Canon(hunt or chase) one voice follows as the other voice sings
- form of the ballade (italian version)
- Francesco Landini (ca 1325-1397)
- blind organist, contracted smallpx; virtuoso in composition and music theory
1.) 90 2-part ballates
2.) 42 3-part ballates
3.) 1 caccia
4.) 10 madrigal
- made 4 voice parts
1.) Duplum (Soprano)
2.) Triplum (Alto)
3.) Quadruplum (Tenor)
4.) Tenor (Bass)
- Polyphonic Conductus
- sounds and looks like gregorian chant, but it is non liturgical.
- "tail" portion of a piece, with no words. Untexted passage at the end of a polyphonic conductus
- section in which the textless contrapunal part proceeds in strict rythym along the note of the chant melody in which the organum is based.
- used to designate modes.
- Musica Ficta
- unwritten practice of raising or lowering certain notes by a half step
- Ars Subtilior
- applies to music of the late 1300's in france...rythmically complex
- a.) Strict Modal Forms
b.) Chromatically altered forms
c.) Form with double leading tones
d.) Modal (phrygian) cadence on E
- Two Accidental Types
- Soft-(looks like a flat) lower half step
Hard-(looks like a boxey b) raise a half step
Used to avoid tritones and avoided notes that werent on the guidonian hand.
- Franconian note values
- looks like a quater note
- Semi Minim
- looks like and eight note
- 9/8 (Circle with a dot)
- Perfect time and mojor prolation
- 3/4 (Circle... no dot)
- pefrect time and minor prolation
- 6/8 (Half Circle and Dot)
- imperfect time and mojor prolation
- 2/4 (Hald Circle...no dot)
- imperfect time and minor prolation
- = Loud instruments
- = Soft instruments
- Kettle Drums
- English Music in 1400's
- composers prefered their own style (conservative)
- Sarum rite-Salisbury Cathedral
- developed melodies simlilar to the gregorian chants
- Worchester Fragments
- 14th century music which contains tropes, motets, and rondellus
- a motet using voice exchange
- (French for False Bells) elaboration of chant which creates a chain of parrallel 6 chords
- Old Hall Manuscript
- chief collection of 15th century english music
- John Dunstable (ca 1390-1453)
- foremost composer for english in the 1400's. 70 known compositions.
Worked under henry V
- 15th cenury motet
- is not considered sacred instead of secular.
- stylized 2 or 3 part setting of a religious poem in poplular style in english or both with rythmic text
- Music In Burgundian Lands
- Gurgundy (supported by england and france)
Phillip the Good (1419-67)
Charles the Bold (1467-77)
St. Joan of Arc (Morbid Loser)
Guillame du Fay (1397-1474)
- Gilles Binchois
- served for Grand Dukes- wrote "song" chanson: de plus en plus (treble dominated; very melodic)
-born in Cambrai (Sang as a choir boy)
-In the cathedral, worked in italian courts; malatesta family, and Papal Chapel
-Worked for courts or Burgundy and savoy
-Canon at cathedral of Cambrai and received the special honor of the pope.
- Works of Binchois
- (began the octave jumps at cadences)
1.) over 80 chansons
-almost always love songs
-s line refrains
2.) 13 isorythmic motets & Hymns (Non Mass)
90 sacred motets- outside ordinary of the mass
4.) 8 complete masses/ 6 pairs of mass movements (most important compositions)
- any polyphonic setting of a secular poem
- 15th century mass types
- Cantus Firmus Mass- uses a preexisting melody as a basis of polyphonic composition. gregorian chant melody as the basis.
2.) Plainsong Mass
3.) Motto Mass- all begin the same
4.) Missa L'Homme Armi- (Armed man about to fight demons)
- 2 or more voices together where each voice holds its own individuality
- each note of Gregorian chant melody was doubled by another note
- magnus liber organi
- composed by leonin, the collection of chantlike music
created at the notre dame cathedral.
- Italian Trecento Composers
- Francesco Landini, and Jacopo de Bologna.
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