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Glossary of Music Final Review

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What is music?
"The art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emothions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color."
Style
different genres, different origins, expressive qualitites relative to a time period or culture
Timbre
(pronounced tam-bur) tone color; the way the voice, instrument, or ensemble sounds
Harmony
pitches/tones that complement each other and the melody. Create differenct modes, feeling to music. Vertical music. Supporting music.
Expression
Dynamics, tempo, articulation, variations of these. Evokes emotions in the listener. Draws upon all elements of music to be expressive.
Melody
the "tune". A series of notes creating a theme or motive. Musical line. Horizontal line.
Thythm
Beat, meter, and pulse. Where there is sound and silence in the music. Syncopation. How music moves through time.
Texture
Monophonic, polyphonic. Layering of timbres or parts and how they sound together. Layers of music and sounds.
Form
Structure of music. Verse, chorus, main themes, repeats, bridges, variations, AB, ABA, etc.
Monophonic
one sound
Polyphonic
many (more than one) sounds
Dynamics
fortissimo(ff), forte(f), mezzo-forte(mf), mezzo-piano(mp), piano(p), pianissimo(pp), crescendo, decrescendo/diminuendo
Tempo
alegro(fast), accelerando(go faster or speed up), rit.(slow down, andante(walking pace), largo(slowly)
Articulation
staccato(short and choppy), legato(long and connected), accents(stressed note)
Time signature
4/4= 4 beats/ 1 beat= 1 quarter note
6/8= 6 eight notes
Major
"happy"
Minor
"sad"
Syncopation
stressing the off beat
Feet
hip or shoulder width apart, evenly balance
Knees
should be soft- not bent, but not locked
Tail
tucked, not slouching and not tucked under
Sternum/Heart
lufted, sternum is your bone plate in center of your chest connecting your ribs and protecting your heart
Shoulders
wide, not rounding, but not tense
Face
"open", softer jaw, open eyes, lifted cheek bones/upper jaw, lifted eyebrows
Head
not tilting forward or back, not side to side, centered, floating on top of tall neck
Three ways our abdominal muscles can contribute to breathing.
1. Relaxing and releasing to make room for the diaphragm to pull the air in for inhalation.
2. Contracting and pushing to help the diaphragm control the air during exhalation-- or when singing, talking, etc.
3. Deep abdominal breaths can help you in just about everything-- exercise, stess, singing/speaking, healthy living.
Diaphragm
We breathe using our diaphragm muscle, not our shoulders
Whole note
4 beats
Half note
2 beats
Quarter note
1 beat
Eighth note
1/2 beat
Sixteenth note
1/4 beat
Whole rest
4 beats
Half rest
2 beats
Quarter rest
1 beat
Eighth rest
1/2 beat
Sixteenth rest
1/4 beat
Treble
Spaces: FACE
Lines: EVBDF
Bass
Spaces: ACEG
Lines: GBDFA
AW
as in "awesome" or "call"
The mouth is tall-- open mouth, long cheeks, vertical space between the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
EH
as in "wet" or "elegent"
The mouth is tall-- same as the "aw" vowel, but with the tongue forming the "eh" sound.
OH
as in "opal" or "oprah"
The mouth is still tall on the inside, but the lips come forward to form a circle or "o" shape. No "oo" at the end.
OO
as is "woot"
The jaw closes slightly, the lips come forward-- away from the teeth, as if you were blowing someone a kiss. Lots of resonance/room inside the mouth. Similiar to imitating the sound of an owl (and not a monkey).
EE
as in "free"
The trickiest vowel-- keep your mouth the same shape as the "o" or "oh" vowel. Do not let the lips go wide. Keeping the lips in an O shape, form the ee sound with your tongue for a warmer tone.
Composers
Renaissance: Thomas Morley
Baroque: J.S. Bach
Classical: Mozart
Romantic: Hector Berlioz
20th Century: John Cage

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