Glossary of Music Appreciation exam 3
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- What is the predominate texture of classical music?and how is it played?
- homophony, 1 melody harmonized
- Wherewas the first concert hall built and when?
- in Oxford, in 1748
- What was changed during the classical period and how?
- rhythms-more variety
dynamics-flexibility, now written
tone color-more flexibility
- Who were the 3 famous composers during the classical period?
- Haydn, Beehtoven and Mozart
- What type of music became very popular during the classical period?
- orchestral music
- What was added to the orchestra in the classical period?
- brass and percussion instruments
- What string instruments are included in a classical orchestra?
- 1 & 2 violins, violas, cellos, double bass
- What woodwind instruments are included in the classical orchestra?
- 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, and 2 bassoons
- What percussion and brass instruments are included in the classical orchestra?
- 2 timpani-percussion
brass-2 trumpets, 2 french horns
- What are the two major differences about the classical period?
- pleasing variety, and more natural->composers want their music to be
- What is counterpoint?
- forms of polyphony when played along with other lines
- What is the word for dynamics growing louder and softer?
- growing louder-crescendo
- What are melodies like in symphonies during the classical period?
- shorter and easier to memorize, usually repeated sereral times during the movement
- What are the forms used during the classical period?
- sonata form, minuet, rondo, theme and variations
- How long did symphonies last during the classical period?
- 15-20 minutes long, gave it a chance to be more expressive
- Describe the movements of a symphony.
- 1st-allegro or moderator-sonata form (biggest and longest)2nd - lento,adagio,andante-various forms(sonata,variation)3rd-
moderate -minuet, 4th-finale, allegro-rondo and sonata forms
- What is minuet?
- a moderately paced dance in triple meter
- Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
- had influence on comic opera which became the most progressive operatic form of the classical century
- What was the Enlightenment's greatest artistic legacy to 19th and 20th centuries?
- the novel
- What is exposition?
- a sonata form movement is a large, diverse section of music in which the basic material of the movement is presented (exposed)
- What is development?
- heightens the tonal-thematic tension set up by contrasting themes and keys of the exposition
- What is retransition?
- discharging the tension and preparing for the recapitulation to come
- What is recapitulation?
- step-by-step review
- Describe the first part of the sonata form movement. what is it?
- exposition-main theme is presented, then 1st theme in tonic key (main key)G minor, then bridge brings 1st & 2nd themes together, 2nd theme-in diff. key (modulation), candence theme
- What is the closing theme called?
- cadence theme
- What is the second part of the sonata form movement?
- constrasting theme of the exposition, various themes, music sounds unstable, retransition occurs, then modulation
- What is the 3rd part of the sonata form movement?
- 1st and second theme, bridge, candence theme, remains in tonic key, more stability, then coda
- What is coda?
- concluding section in any musical form
- What years was Haydn born?
- When did Mozart live?
- What are the four movements of Haydn's symphony # 95?
-varition form-theme, var.1,2,3
- Describe the 2nd movement of Hadyn's symphony.
- slow movement-a restful episode to contrast with the vigourous first movement
-variation form, theme, var. 1, var.2, var.3
- Who did Haydn work for and what did he do when he worked for him?
- Esterhazys, composed for the court
- What is classical variation form?
- entails the successive uninterrupted repitition of a clearly defined melodic unit, then with various changes at each repitition
- What is the 3rd movement of Hadyn's symphony # 95?
- the sole dance type from the baroque suite to survive in the multimovement genres of the classical period, 1st beat is strongest, reminder of aristocratic courts
- Describe the last movement of Hadyn's symphony # 95.
- finale movement, rondo form, used mostly for closing movements, repitition of a full fledged time
a relatively simple form with popular leanings
- What is the classical concerto?
- contest between soloist and the orchestra
- What are the three parts of a double exposition?
- orchestra exposition, solo exposition, and cadenza
- What is double-exposition form?
- Mozart developed a special form to capitalize on the contest that is basic to the genre.
- Describe the parts of the double-exposition form.
- orchestra plays in tonic key the 1st theme and then 2nd theme, candence theme, 1st theme, the bridge, soloist plays 2nd theme and cadence in tonic key, then soloist & orchestra plays
- How many movements does a string quartet have?
- 4 movements
- What is chamber music?
- a term for music designed to be played in a room in a palace drawing room or in a small hall
- What are two types of genres played as chamber music? what instruments are involved?
- string quartet-violin 1, violin 2, viola, and cello
piano trio-piano, violin, and cello
- What did Mozart write?
- piano concerto, double-exposition form
- What Beehtoven do at the end of his life?
- started to compose Romantic style
- What all did Beethoven write?
- 16 quartets, 32 piano sonatas, and 9 syphonies
- When did Beethoven live and what were the years that were important in his life?
1770-1800-most classical period
1818-1827-most tragic and serene
- What movement did Beethoven invent? and describe this movement
- scherzo movement-used instead of minuet, third movement, means "joke" same form but faster, lighter, and more humor
- What was the first piece Beethoven wrote?
- What is opera sena?
- serious opera in Baroque period
- What is opera buffa? and who wrote it?
- italian comic opera, Mozart
- What is cadence?
- notes orchards ending a section of music with a feeling of conclusiveness, applied to phrases, works and movements
- What is the difference in beat compared to classical and baroque to Romantic period?
- speeds up and slows down
- What is ensemble singing?
- action propells faster, can 2 style of singing and more than 1 person singing at the same time about their emotions
- What are some examples of ensembel singing? what does this include? and when does this occur in opera?
- duets, trios, quartets, w/aria music, in climax of each scenes
- What did Beethoven do during the French Revolution?
- 1789, put ideas of revolution into his music, dedicated symphony to napoleon, pushed the limits of harmony, melody, dynamics and rhythms
- What is different about Romaticism?
- more emotional, dramatize, personal expression, individualism,
- What was the style tempo rubato?
- robbed time, slowed down the beat and acceleration
- What is different about melody and the orchestra and harmony in the Romantic period?
- melody is more heaving, intense, longer phrases, bigger range, orchestra is bigger, more brass, more strings, harmony is more colorful, we have 7 keys in harmony compared to 3-4 keys
- Who was the greatest pianist? what nationality was he? what did he write?
- Franz Liszt, Hungarian, 1 sonata and mostly short pieces
- Who was the most famous Romantic composer? what nationality was her? what did he write?
- Chopin, Polish, wrote 3 sonatas
- What period followed the Romantic period? and then after this period?
- impressionistic period, contemporary music
- Who came after Beethoven?, what nationality was he?
- schubert, german,
- What occured during the Romantic period that was different form all other periods?
- composers began to name their works
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