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Glossary of Music 15 - Ch. 4 Texture

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Texture
= Fabric

text/lecture- refers to the interweaving of the melodic and harmonic elements of music.
Monophony/Monody
Single-voiced

Melody is heard w/o any harmonic accompaniment or other melodic lines.
Heterophony
Two or more voices simultaneously elaborating the SAME melody.

Usually melody with ornamented version of itself.
Polyphony
Many-voiced texture

Two or more different melodic lines are combined, thus distributing melodic interest among all the parts.

Based on counterpoint.
Counterpoint
Grove's - Term to describe the combination of simultaneously sounding musical lines (2 or more) according to a system of rules.

One musical line set against another.
Homophony
Single voice takes over the melodic interest, while accompanying parts take subordinate role.

Polyrhythm

Accompaniment is usually harmony.

eg. Pianist play melody in right hand and left sounds chords; or violin melody with accompanied piano.

Based on harmony.
Homorhythm
All voices/lines move in the same rhythm, in a note-against-note style.
Based on harmony moving in sync with a melody. (like homophony)
Free polyphony
Many melodies in layered all moving at different rhythms and creating resultant melody and harmony.
Imitative Polyphony
Uses one melody layered and stretched out in time
[row row row your boat]
[row row row your boat]
Canon
When imitation in piece lasts for an entire work.
Round
The simplest and most popular form of canon.
Each voice enters in succession with the same melody, which can be repeated endlessly.
Retrograde
Contrapuntal Device

Melody played backwards
Inversion
Contrapuntal Device

Melody played turned upside down.
Retrograde Inversion
Contrapuntal Device

Melody played upside down and backwards.
Augmentation
Contrapuntal Device

Melody played in longer time values, often twice as slow.
Diminution
Contrapuntal Device

Melody is presented in short time values.

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