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Glossary of Music 15 - Ch.40 Classical Form

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Absolute/Pure Music
Music in which there is no prescribed story or text to hold the music together. Story is the music itself. Form is very important.
Multimovement cycle
Used from around 1750 thru Romantic.

Cycle consists of generally three or four movements in prescribed forms and tempos, and is employed in various genres, including symphony, sonata, chamber works, and concerto.
Sonata-allegro form
aka First movement form/sonata form

Assumes music est. a home key, moves or modulates to another, and returns to home key. Ternary.

(intro)
Exposition
Development
Recapitulation
(coda)
Exposition
Opening section of sonata-allegro form.

Presents two opposing keys and their themes.

First theme
expand
bridge/transition
contrasting key theme (modulate)
closing section in contrast theme.
Development
Sonata form.
Where the conflict erupts and action reaches maximum intensity of the movement.
May wander through series of foreign keys to build tension.
Recapitulation
Bridges back to the key of the tonic. The climax of sonata-allegro form.

Sonata form.
First theme reappears.
Bridge
transpose the second theme of expo to tonic.
closing theme.
Coda
Sonata form.
literally "tail"

end of first movement. Fashioned from material previously heard in recapitulation.
Theme and Variation
The second movement of the cycle.

Slowest movement.

Ternary.

Each variation of theme sets forth the idea with some new modification.

Melodic Variation
Harmonic Variation
Rhythmic Variation
Melodic Variation
Where solo player embellishes a popular tune with a series of decorative flourishes.
Harmonic Variation
The chords that accompany a melody are replaced by others..eg shifting from major to minor mode.
Rhythmic Variation
variation of rhythm, meter, and tempo.
Minuet and Trio
Third movement of cycle

Usually in triple meter. (waltz/dance)

Minuet - rounded binary theme 1
Trio - rounded binary theme 2
Minuet
Rounded Binary form
Two parts, but second part may bring back the first theme at its close.

Da capo - D.C. - "from the beginning" - signal to repeat first section.

||:a:||:b-a:||
Scherzo
Replaced the Minuet in the nineteenth-century symphony.

ternary - scherzo,trio,scherzo

Faster pace and vigorous rhythm.
Rondo
Fourth movement of cycle

Characterized by the recurrence of a musical idea, its theme or refrain, in alternation with contrasting episodes.

Simplest A-B-A-B-A extension of ternary.
can be A-B-A-C-A
Arched form A-B-A-C-A-B-A

Catchy theme that easy listen to over and over again.

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