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Glossary of Music 15 - Ch.37 Musical Systems

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Octave
The interval between two tones with the same name that are seven diatonic pitches apart, 12 chromatic half steps.

String half as long will vibrate twice as fast - octave higher

String twice as long will vibrate half as fast - octave lower.
Half step
How the twelve tones of the octave are divided in western music.
Chromatic Scale
Twelve tones of the octave divided by half steps.
Sharp
To raise a tone by a half step.
Flat
To lower a tone by a half step.
Key
A group of related tones that revolve around the tonic to which they gravitate.
Major Scale
Diatonic scale
seven tones
do<re mi<fa sol<la ti>do
1, 1,1/2,1, 1, 1,1/2 steps
Mode
The pattern of whole and half steps between any key of scale.

Major mode - w,w,h,w,w,w,h
Minor mode - w,h,w,w,h,w,w
Minor Scale
Diatonic scale
Its third degree is half step lower.

1, 1/2, 1, 1, 1/2, 1, 1 steps
Pentatonic Scale
Other cultures divide the octave differently.
This is the most common.

Octave divided into FIVE-notes.
Microtones
Intervals smaller than a half step.
Ragas
Scale for the music of India, contains certain pitches that are heard only in one direction.

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