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Glossary of Muscles of the Cadaver: Origins, Insertions, and Actions

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Sternocleidomastoid
O: Manubrium and clavicle
I: Mastoid Process
A: Flexes neck
Pectoralis major
O: Sternum
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
A: Flexes shoulder
Pectoralis minor
O: Ribs 3-5
I: Coracoid process of scapula
A: Protracts shoulder
Rectus Abdominus
(action only)
A: Compresses abdomen
External Oblique
(action only)
A: Compresses abdomen
Internal Oblique
(action only)
A: Compresses abdomen
Serratus Anterior
(action only)
A: Protracts shoulder
Biceps Brachii
(insertion and action)
I: Radial tuberosity
A: Flexes elbow
Brachialis
(action only)
A: Flexes elbow
Brachioradialis
(action only)
A: Flexes elbow
Pronator teres
O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
I: Lateral radius
A: Pronates forearm
Flexor carpi radialis
(action only)
A: Flexes wrist
Palmaris longus
O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
I: Palmar Aponeurosis
A: Flexes wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris
O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
I: Base of 5th metacarpal
A: Flexes wrist
Flexor digitorum superficialis
O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
I: Middle phalanges of digits 2-5
A: flexes fingers
Flexor digitorum profundus
O: Medial ulna
I: Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
A: Flexes fingers
Pronator Quadratus
(action only)
A: Pronates forearm
Extensor carpi radialis longus
O: Lateral humerus
I: 2nd metacarpal
A: Extends wrist
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: 3rd metacarpal
A: Extends wrist
Extensor digitorum
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: Phalanges of digits 2-5
A: Extend digits 2-5
Extensor digiti minimi
(action only)
A: Extends little finger
Extensor carpi ulnaris
(action only)
A: Extends wrist
Abductor pollicis longus
(action only)
A: Abducts thumb
Extensor pollicis brevis
(action only)
A: Extends thumb
Supinator
(action only)
A: Supinates forearm
Sartorius
(origin and action only)
O: Anterior superior iliac spine
A: Flexes hip
Pectinius
(action only)
A: Flexes hip
Iliopsoas
(action only)
A: Flexes hip
Rectus Femoris
O: Superior inferior iliac spine
I: Tibial tuberosity
A: Extends knee
Vastus lateralis
O: Proximal half of linea aspera
I: Tibial tuberosity
A: Extends knee
Vastus medialis
O: Entire length of linea aspera
I: Tibial tuberosity
A: Extends knee
Vastus intermedius
O: Distal half of linea aspera
I: Tibial tuberosity
A: Extends knee
Tensor fascia lata
(action only)
A: Tenses fascia lata
Gracilis
(action only)
A: Adducts hip
Adductor longus
(action only)
A: Adducts hip
Adductor magnus
(action only)
A: Adducts hip
Tibialis anterior
(action only)
A: Dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor hallucis longus
(action only)
A: Extends big toe
Extensor digitorum longus
(action only)
A: Extends toes 2-5
Fibularis longus
(action only)
A: Plantar flexion of ankle
Trapezius
O: Occipital bone
I: Scapular spine and acromion process
A: Elevates scapula
Deltoid
O: Clavicle and scapula
I: Deltoid tuberosity
A: Abducts shoulder
Latissimus dorsi
(action only)
A: Extends shoulder
Supraspinatus
(action only)
A: Abducts shoulder
Infraspinatus
(action only)
A: Laterally rotates shoulder
Teres major
(action only)
A: Extends shoulder
Rhomboideus major
(action only)
A: Downward rotation of scapula
Erector spinae
(action only)
A: Erects spine
Triceps brachii
(insertion and action only)
I: Olecrannon process
A: Extends elbow
Gluteus maximus
O: Iliac crest
I: Gluteal tuberosity
A: Laterally rotates hip
Gluteus medius
(action only)
A: Medially rotates hip
Piriformis
(action only)
A: Laterally rotates hip
Semitendonosus
O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Tibial shaft
A: Flexes knee
Semimembranosus
O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Medial condyle of tibia
A: Flexes knee
Biceps femoris
O: Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera
I: Lateral condyle of tibial and head of fibula
A: Flexes knee
Gastrocnemius
O: Femoral condyles
I: Calcaneus
A: Plantar flexion at ankle
Soleus
(action only)
A: Plantar flexion at ankle

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