Glossary of Mr. Brewster's Vocab test-chemistry

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Anything that has mass (the amount of material in an object) and takes up space. On the earth, where gravity is present, we weigh an object to determine its mass.
Chemical, such as hydrogen (H), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), or oxygen (O), whose distinctly different atoms serve as the basic building blocks of all matter. There are 92 naturally occurring elements. Another 23 have been made in laboratories. Two or more elements combine to form compounds that make up most of the world's matter.
Combination of atoms, or oppositely charged ions, of two or more different elements held together by attractive forces called chemical bonds.
Combination of one or more elements and compounds.
Minute unit made of subatomic particles that is the basic building block of all chemical elements and thus all matter; the smallest unit of an element that can exist and still have the unique characteristics of that element.
Atom or group of atoms with one or more positive (1) or negative (2) electrical charges.
Combination of two or more atoms of the same chemical element (such as O2) or different chemical elements (such as H2O) held together by chemical bonds.
subatomic particles
Extremely small particles--electrons, protons, and neutrons--that make up the internal structure of atoms
Extremely tiny center of an atom, making up most of the atom's mass. It contains one or more positively charged protons and one or more neutrons with no electrical charge (except for a hydrogen-1 atom, which has one proton and no neutrons in its nucleus).
atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
mass number
Sum of the number of neutrons (n) and the number of protons (p) in the nucleus of an atom. It gives the approximate mass of that atom. Compare atomic number.
Two or more forms of a chemical element that have the same number of protons but different mass numbers because they have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
Amount of a chemical in a particular volume or weight of air, water, soil, or other medium.
Numeric value that indicates the relative acidity or alkalinity of a substance on a scale of 0-14, with the neutral point at 7. Acid solutions have pH values lower than 7, and basic or alkaline solutions have pH values greater than 7.
chemical formula
Shorthand way to show the number of atoms (or ions) in the basic structural unit of a compound. Examples are H2O, NaCl, and C6H12O6.
organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon atoms combined with each other and with atoms of one or more other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, and fluorine. All other compounds are called inorganic compounds.
Coded units of information about specific traits that are passed on from parents to offspring during reproduction. They consist of segments of DNA molecules found in chromosomes.
Grouping of various genes and associated proteins in plant and animal cells that carry certain types of genetic information. See genes.
inorganic compounds
All compounds not classified as organic compounds.
An ionized gas consisting of electrically conductive ions and electrons. It is known as a fourth state of matter.
matter quality
Measure of how useful a matter resource is, based on its availability and concentration.
high-quality matter
Matter that is concentrated and contains a high concentration of a useful resource. Compare low-quality matter.
Periodic table of elements
a way that elements are classified based on their chemical behavior
pH scale
a scale used to measure acidity and alkalinity that goes from 0-14, where acids are less than 7, neutrals are 7, and bases are greater than 7, used to measure the amount of H+ ions in a solution
solutions with a pH less than 7, release H+ ions (hydrogen)
solutions with a pH greater than 7, release OH- ions (hydroxide)
ionic compound
a compound made up of oppositely charged ions
covalent (molecular) compounds
compounds made up of uncharged atoms
ionic bond
forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond
2 or more nonmetals forming a bond, they share electrons
hydrogen bonds
weaker forces of attractions between the molecules of covalent compounds
endothermic reaction
a chemical reaction where energy is absorbed
exothermic reaction
a chemical reaction where energy is released
substance doing the dissolving in a solution
the substance being dissolved in a solution
a uniform mixture of 2 or more substances
activation energy
the minimum energy needed to cause a chemical reaction
compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms (i.e. methane)
chlorinated hydrocarbons
compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine atoms (i.e. DDT)
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
compounds of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms (Freon-12 used to be used in ACs)
simple carbohydrates (simple sugars)
certain types of compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (i.e. glucose)
complex carbohydrates
consist of 2 or more monomers of simple sugars (like glucose) linked together
formed by linking together monomers of amino acids
nucleic acids
made by linked sequences of monomers called nucleotides (i.e. DNA)
sodium hydroxide
sulfuric acid
Nitric acid
hydrochloric acid
hydronium ion (released by acids)
hydroxide ion, released by bases

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