Glossary of Module 2: Structure and Function of Cells in the Nervous System
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- What are the three types of neurons?
- 1. sensory
- What does the central nervous system consist of?
- brain and spinal cord
- What part of the nervous system exists outside the brain and spinal cord?
- the peripheral nervous system
- Name the four basic parts of a neuron. Visualize a neuron at the same time.
dendrite, soma (cell body), axon and terminal buttons
- Which neurons have one axon and one dendritic tree?
- bipolar neuron
- Which neurons have one extension from the soma and mostly link skin to the brain (touch temperature)?
- What part of the neuron is the cell body that contains the nucleus?
- A branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron; receives information for the terminal buttons of other neurons is what?
- a dendrite
- Name it: a junction between the terminal button of an axon ant the membrane of another neuron.
- Name the long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys information from the soma of a neuron to it's terminal button.
- The bud at the end of a branch of an axon: forms the synapses with another neuron; sends information to that neuron is what?
- terminal button
- What is a neurontransmitter?
- A chemical that is released by a terminal button; has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron.
- What is the structure called that consists principally of lipid molecules that defines the outer boundaries of a cell and also constitutes many of the cell organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus?
- What is the structure in the central region of a cell that contains the nucleolus and chromosomes?
- Which structure is found within the nucleus of a cell that produces the ribosomes?
- Name it: a cytoplasmic structure, made of protein, that serves as the site of production of proteins translated from mRNA.
- What term refers to a direction along an axon from the cell body toward the terminal buttons?
- What term refers to a direction along an axon from the terminal buttons toward the cell body?
- What are the supporting cells of the CNS?
- A glia cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS, provides nutrients and other substances and regulates the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid. Name it.
- What is phagocytosis?
- The process by which the cells engulf and digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration.
- What is a oligodendrocyte?
- A type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths.
- A naked portion of a myelinated anon, between adjacent oligodendroglia or Schwann cells is called what?
- Node of Randier.
- What is the smallest of the glia cells; act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms?
- What is a Schwann cell?
- A cell in the PNS that is wrapped around a myelinated axon, providing one segment of its myelin sheath.
- What is the semipermeable barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries?
- the blood brain barrier
- What is diffusion?
- Movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
- What is an aqueous solution of a material that ionizes -namely a soluble acid, base or salt called?
- an electrolyte
- What is an ion?
- a charged molecule
- What are cations?
- positively charged molecules
- What are anions?
- negatively charged molecules
- The attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between particles charged with the same sign is called what?
- electrostatic pressure
- What is the fluid contained within cells called?
- intracellular fluid
- What are body fluids located outside of cells called?
- extracellular fluid
- What is a protein found in the membrane of all cells that extrudes sodium ions from and transports potassium ions into the cell called?
- sodium-potassium transporter
- A specialized protein molecule that permits specific ions to enter or leave cells is called what?
- ion channel
- A type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths is what kind of cell?
- an oligodenrocyte
- What is a myelin sheath?
- A sheath that surrounds axons and insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons.
- What is the naked portion of a myelinated axon, between adjacent oligodendroglia or Schwann cells?
- node of Ranvier
- Which are the smallest of the glial cells that act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms?
- What is the semipermeable membrane barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries?
- the blood-brain barrier
- What is the area postrema?
- A region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak; poisons can be detected there and can initiate vomiting.
- A conductive medium that can be used to apply electrical stimulation or to record electrical potential. What does this describe?
- an electrode
- What is very fine used to record activity of individual neurons?
- a microelectrode
- What is the membrane potential of a cell?
- The electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell.
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