Glossary of Module 1: Introduction to the Physiology of Behaviour
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- What is synaesthesia?
- A union of senses. The condition in which a sensory experience normally associated with one modality occurs when another modality is stimulated. For instance, a person hears someone say '7' and gets an experience of yellow.
- What is someone called who has synaesthesia?
- A synaesthete.
- What is photism?
- Photism is the experience of color when stimuli from other, non-visual modalities are presented, a form of synaesthesia.
- Define agnosia.
- Literally, agnosia means not knowing; a defect in recognition. Generally, an agnosic can sense objects and forms but is unable to recognize and interpret their meaning.
- What is confabulation?
- Confabulation is making up details or filling in gaps in memory. This may be a conscious act in which one is adding to the elaborating partial memories of events or an unconscious act in which falsification serves as a defense mechanism.
- What is anosognosia?
- Anosognosia is when there is an unwillingness or failure to recognize and deal with a deficiency or a disease. An unawareness of ones own symptomatology.
- What is the term that descrbies the belief that the world consists only of matter and energy and that the mind is a phinomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system.
- Describe consciousness as the text does.
- Consciousness refers to the fact that we are aware and can communicate to others out thoughts, perceptions, memories and feelings.
- The ability of a person who cannot see objects in his blind field to accurately reach for them while remaining unconscious of perceiving them; caused by damage to the "mammalian" visual system of the brain is called what?
- Who thought that All nerves carry the same basic message -an electrical impulse?
- Johannes Muller (18001-1858)
- Who removed parts of animal brains (experimental ablation) and observed what the animal could no longer do?
- Pierre Fiourens (1794-1867)
- Who applied the ablation logic to humans by observing the resultant behavior from naturally occurring brain injuries?
- Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880)
- What is the modularity hypothesis?
- Brain damage in discrete locations causes different types of behavioral difficulties.
- Who sunk electrodes into animal brains and observed the animals movements?
- Fritsch and Hitzig (1870)
- Who mapped the sensory-motor areas of many species?
- David Ferrier (1834-1928)
- In neurophysiology, what is the motor homunculus?
- Basically, it is a schematic representation of the cortical projections for sensory and motor functions (Penfield and Rasmussen).
- If mutations are maladaptive the organism dies off and the genes carrying the mutations dies off. If the mutations are adaptive then the organism reproduces more and successfully and the changes get passed on. What is this?
- natural selection
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