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Glossary of Modern World Lit: The Enlightenment

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4 Terms to describe the period
1- Neoclassicism
2- Age of Reason
3- Century of Light
4- The Enlightenment
Background to the Neclassical Period: Historical/Political
1- Time of Expansion
2- Time of singular national figures
3- Time of subdued conflict b/t church and state
Background to the Neclassical Period: Scientific
Time of great strides in national physical laws
Background to the Neclassical Period: Philosophic/Religious
Time of rationalism (scientific method)
Two views of Humanity
Mind vs. Matter
Idealists
mind or spirit forms ultimate reality
Materialists
Matter or body constitute ultimate reality
Two Views Concerning Human Condition
Ancients and Moderns
Ancients
Pagan antiquity held the model for human conduct and aspiration
Moderns
Current culture could excel the Greeks and Romans
Deism
An attempt to reconcile Christianity w/rationalism
Satire
A blend of criticism and humor, usually for the sake of improving humanity
Wigs Political Party
Progressives (opposed monarchist rule)
Tories Political Party
Conservatives (favored aristocratic rule)
Popular Religions of 1700 and 1800s
Deism and Methodism
Industry in the 1700s
Base of machinery-- emphasis on Newton
Form
slightly informal discourse
Tone
Conversational, reflective
Three Causes of Evil
1- Natural Causes
2- Inherent human limitations
3- Moral Evil
Tartuffe: A fake
Sympathy characters denounce him as a fake
Cleante: anti-tartuffe character
Voice of Reason
Orgon: a man consumed with his passion
Desires piety; believes only in what he sees
Louis XIV: anti-Organ character
Sees beyond appearances; rational
Characterists of a Protagonist (Tartuffe?)
1- Absolute Power
2- Blinded by appearances, false values, or money
Themes of Tartuffe
1- Corrupt people desire power
2- Great passion leads to selfishness and destruction
3- People can manipulate good for evil
4- The gullibility of humanity rests with deciever and the decieved
Key Phrase of Essay on Man
"Whatever is, is right."
Leibniz's Vindiction of the goodness of God in respect to the existence of evil
Theodicy
Philosophical Dialogue
Dialogue which employs striking irony
Tension between philosophical outlooks in Candide
Pangloss- Utter Optimism
Martin- Utter Pessimism
Key Phrase from Candide
Tend your garden
Another work of Swift
Journal to Stella
4 Voyages of Gulliver
1- Lilliput (rude, little people)
2- Brobdingnag (nice, giants)
3- Laputa (Aristocratic Tyrants)
4- Land of the Houyhnhnms (horse people and yahoo people)
Thematic Focus of Gulliver's Travels
Rational freedom
Two groups in Houyhnhnmland
Houyhnhnms- society- reason
Yahoos- individual- emotion
What Gulliver and the Houyhnhnms lack
Love/Charity
Genre of Tartuffe
French Classic Comedy Drama
Genre of The Rape of the Lock
Mock Epic
Genre of The Essay on Man
Philosophical Poetry
Genre of Candide
Conte (Philosophical Tale)
Genre of A Modest Proposal
Pamphlet/Essay
Genre of Gulliver's Travels
Travel Log (Fictional)
Author of Tartuffe
Moliere
Author of The Rape of the Lock
Pope
Author of Essay on Man
Pope
Author of Candide
Voltaire
Author of A Modest Proposal
Swift
Author of Gulliver's Travels
Swift

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