Glossary of Minerals 9.1 Earth Science

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Si & O
Cl or F
O but no Si or C
Fe2O3 2 atoms of iron (Fe) and 3 atoms of oxygen. An OXIDE because it has no Silicon and no Carbon.
SiO2, one atom of silicon, two atoms of oxygen, SILICATE
MG2SiO4, two atoms of manganese, one atom of silicon, four atoms of oxygen, SILICATE
CaSO4, one atom of calcium, one atom of sulfur, four atoms of oxygen, SULFIDE
Al2O3 2 atoms of aluminum, 3 atoms of oxygen, OXIDE
CaF2 one atom of Calcium, 2 atoms of fluorine, HALIDE
FeS2, one atom of iron, two atoms of Sulfur, SULFIDE
PbS, one atom of lead, one atom of sulfur, SULFIDE
KAlSi4O8, one atom of Potassium, one atom of aluminum, four atoms of silicon, eight atoms of oxygen, SILICATE
mixtures of minerals
1) a pure element or
2) a chemical compound
eg. Au (gold) or SiO4 (quartz)
litho - rock, stone

atmo - air

sphere - round 3D object
Which mineral group makes up the largest portion of the lithosphere?
silicates (containing Si & O)
After the silicates, the second largest group in the lithosphere is the _________
How hard is the rock on a scale of 1 to 10.
light reflected from the surface of a mineral is called LUSTER. There is one type of luster that reflects light like a POLISHED METAL: this is called metallic luster.
specific gravity
How heavy is this rock by weight?
The color of a mineral in its POWDERED FORM.
the tendency for some minerals to SPLIT EASILY ALONG CERTAIN FLAT SURFACES.
fracture properties
FRACTURE PROPERTIES are described according how the mineral fractures. Minerals may fracture 'unevenly' or 'irregularly'. A broken surface may be fibrous or splintery.
An easily observed property of a mineral. It is an UNRELIABLE identification clue because 'weathered' surfaces may hide the color of minerals. An example of this unreliability is the mistaking of pyrite for gold.
chemical formula
Every mineral has its own chemical formula. For example, halite is different than orthoclase because it is made from a different and separate combination of elements.
crystal structure
A specific mineral always has the same general shape because the atoms or ions that form its crystals always combine in the same geometric pattern.
a measure of how much matter is in a unit of volume. Density is measured as mass/volume; for example: 3 grams / cubic centimeters (3 gm/cc) or 3 grams per millileter (3 gms./liter)
To say that a mineral has the physical property of being 'fibrous' is to describe a property of _________.
a. streak
b. luster
c. fracture
What is hardness?
The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching.
What does the term 'inorganic' mean?
not made up of living organisms or the remains of living organisms
What are 'rock-forming' minerals .
These are the minerals that compose 90% of the earth's crust.
Name the six groups of NONSILICATE minerals.
halides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, silicates and the oxides.
What is the basic structure of all silicate minerals?
the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
Name and explain the physical properties used to identify minerals.
color, fracture and cleavage, luster, hardness, crystal shape, streak, density
Explain the classroom scale of hardness used in the laboratory.
Remember MOHS Scale of Hardness. What substances are at the top and bottom of this scale.
Explain the special properties used to identify calcite, halite, and magnetite.
Why is GALENA so important to the state of Wisconsin.
Early mining industry
Explain the impact of minerals on society.
Minerals are used in virtually all commercial manufacturing processes. Without minerals, consumers would not enjoy so many products and conveniences.

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