Glossary of Microbiology terms unit IV
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- removal of all forms of microbial life and endospores
- Any treatment used on inanimate objects to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms
- A chemical method for disinfection of the skin or mucous membranes.
- any change in a state of health; when part or all of the body is not "healthy"
- a disease causing organism
- the invasion or growth of microorganisms in the body
- the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism
- the ability to ward off diseases through nonspecific and specific diseases
- Chemical used to disinfect skin or membranes
- What is the chemical called that is used to kill or inhibit microbe growth?
- transient flora
- May be present for several days, weeks, months then disappear
- normal flora
- microorganisms that establish more/less permanent residence (colonize) but do not produce disease under normal conditions
- disease primarily in the wild and domestic animals that can be transmitted to humans
- systemic infection
generalized = systemic
- microorganisms or products are spread through body by blood and/or lymph
- localized infection
- invading microorganisms are limited to a small area of the body
- invokes an immune response/ a substance that invokes a specific immune response
- give examples of zoonoses
- Rabies (bats, skunks, foxes, dogs, and cats) Lyme disease (field mice), anthrax, ringworm
- endemic disease
- a disease constantly present in a population; common cold
- epidemic disease
- many people in a given area aquire a certain disease in a relatively short period; AIDS, std's
- pandemic disease
- an epidemic disease that occurs world wide; influenzas
- the cause of disease
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
- anaphylactic shock
- a serious allergic reaction; involve IgE antibodies
- What does LD50 stand for?
- lethal dose for 50% of a population
- What does ID50 stand for?
- infectious dose for 50% of a sample population
- microbial antagonism
- Where there is competion between microbes
- the upset of balance between normal microbiota and pathogenic microbes can result in...
- Explain the process of inflammation
- a)damage to body's tissues
b)vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
c)phagocyte migration and phagocytosis of bacteria and cellular debris by macrophages and neutrophils.
d) tissue repair
- Signs and symptoms of inflammation
(also loss of function)
- Explain what happens during the tissue damage stage of inflammation
- Once tissue is damaged, chemicals - histamine, kinins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes - are released by damaged cells.
A blood clot forms
Abscess starts to form
- Explain what happens during vasodilation.
- blood vessels enlarge or dilate.
- during the second phase of inflammation, what happens?
- Margination where phagocytes stick to endothelium
Emigration where phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells
Phagocytosis of invading bacteria
- What's the First line of defense mean?
- physical barriers
- Examples of physical barrier
- skin, mucous membranes, oil, silia
- Example of chemical barrier
- tears, sweat
- Example of genetic barrier
- born w/HIV immunity
feline leukemia (nonhuman)
- What's the 2nd line of defense?
-edema and chemotaxis
Interferon and pyrogen = fever
-ingest and eliminate (phagocytosis)
- What's the 3rd line of defense?
- Specific Immune Response
- The body's defense against particular pathogenic microorganisms also called specific resistance
- Naturally acquired passive immunity examples
- from mother to baby
- Artificially acquired active immunity examples
- from vaccinations
- introduces specially prepared antigens(vaccines) into the body.
- Naturally acquired active immunity
- happens when person is exposed during daily life
- Naturally acquired active immunity examples
- chicken pox, measles, intestinal diseases
- describe the structure of an antibody
- 4 poly peptide chains
2 heavy 2 light chains
2heavy chains are longer with more amino acids
- describe the polypeptide chains in the structure of an antibody
- each chain has a
constant portion: aa sequence the same
variable portion: the sequence is different/changed
-the changed shape better fits the antigen
Antigen binds to a portion
- What is meant by a "good antigen"?
- have these characteristics:
must be non-self
- inactivated vaccine
- use microbes that have been killed.
- attenuated vaccine
- use living but weakened(attenuated) microbes.
- Examples of attenuated vaccines:
- MMR, polio (Sabin)
- Examples of inactivated vaccines:
- rabies, influenza, polia (salk)
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