Glossary of Microbiology prokaryotic Lecture one

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What do prokaryotic cells have that eukaryotic cell don't?
Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall eukaryotic do not.
What is the difference in the chromosome in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic chromosomes are enclosed in a membrane where as prokaryotic cell one chromosome is tightly wound and is just hanging loose.
Name some functions that are carried out in the cytoplasm of procaryotic cells?
Cell growth, metabolism and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of procaryotic cells.
Define a plasmid in a procaryotic cell?
Small pieces of genetic material outside the chromosome is the defination of a plasmid.
What are some of the functions of a plasmid in a prokaryotic cell?
Plasmid is capable of automous replication, can code for toxins and antibiotic resistance and can be passed from one strain to another via conjugative plasmids.
How long does it take for a prokaryotic cell to replicate?
It take 20-30 minutes for a prokaryotic cell to replicate, give or take.
Define DNA?
DNA is the genetic blueprint for making every protein in the cell, Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a long polymer of 4 nucleotides.Double stranded nucleic acid, helix.
Define RNA?
RNA is Ribonucleic Acid and helps to translate the information in the DNA into protein, it is a long polymer nucleotides.Sinigle stranded nucleic acid.
What nucleotides are in DNA?
Adenine, guanine, cytosine and Thymine are the nucleotides in DNA
What nucleotides are in RNA?
Adenine, guanine, cytosine and Uracil are the nucleotides in RNA
Major difference between our cells and bacteria cells?
Major difference between our cells and bacteria cells is our cell do not have cell wall;bacteria's ability to replicate more readily for in 20-30 minutes often going through mutation causing problems with antibiotic resistance. Bacteria doesn not have a mitochondria so their plasma membrane does the job. Eukaryotic cells have a 80s ribosomes bacteria have a 70s ribosome with 50s and 30s subunits.
Name the three types of RNA?
Three types of RNA are
mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA
Function of the three types of RNA?
rRNA is a permanent part of the ribosome, mRNA transfers of genetic information from the DNA, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis, during transcription; tRNA transfer amino acids to the ribosomes to create the polypeptide chain during translation.
What are inclusion bodies and where are they found?
Inclusion bodies are storage units found in the cytoplasm of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, they are grown in the presence of excess nutrients.
Define endospore and where are they found?
Endospore is a form of preservation for some forms of bacteria when a cell is threatened from starvation or toxic waste it is a form of suspended animation. they are resists heat radiation, chemicals and dessication. They can live for a long time and regerminate.
Name the spore life cycle in order?
Stage 0-Normal growth stage I-bacterial division stage II- assymetric septation
stage III-engulfment
Stage IV-cortex synthesis
Stage V-coat synthesis
Stage VIlysis of the mother cell
Stage VIIfree spore.
Describe cell membrane and what kind of cells have one?
Every cell on Earth has a cell membrane it acts as a major barrier allowing selective transport w/environment,osmotic barrier,it is composed of a bilayer phosolipid and proteins running through it, attached to a 3 C glyerol backbone with 2 fatty acid chains dangling from C of the glycerol. Phosphate end hydrophilic, fatty acid chain hydrophobic.
What does amphipathic mean?
Containing both hydrophic and hydrophobic portions.
What are the two kinds of bacteria?
Gram positive and Gram negative.
Describe a gram negative bacteria cell?
A gram negative bacteria cell has a thinner peptidoglycan layer(Unique to bacteria) than gram positive, it also has an outer layer lipopolysaccharide which is unique to gram negatives. Gram negative make our cell go crazy to get rid of to get through OM. Broad spectrum antiobiotics to get through OM.
Describe gram positive bacteria?
Gram positive has a thicker peptidoglycan layer than gram negative with the periplasmic space between cell membrane and peptidoglycan layer.
What is another name for the Outer membrane, lipopolysaccharide of the gram negative bacteria?
Endotoxin is another name for the Outer Membrane.
Name two gram negative bacterias?
Neissera gonorrhea, neissera meningitis are gram negative bacterias.
What makes up the peptidoglycan layer?
Peptidoglycan layer consist of a lattice of overlapping sugars,NAG NAM cross linked by an amino acid bridge.
What is our body's response to gram negative bacteria?
OUr body produces an over abundance of neutraphil when expose to the OM/ endotoxin.
What are some functions of the outer membrane of a gram negative bacteria?
Functions are pathogenic properties, stabilizes mating cells, keep enzymes (sensor proteins) in periplasmic space, confers negative charge to cell, phage receptor.
What is contained in the periplasmic space?
There are enzymes and binding proteins in the periplasmic space.
What is the purpose of the enzynmes in the periplasmic space?
The purpose of the enzymes in the periplasmic space are to start the process of breaking down so only what is broken down and needed will be transported via binding protein.
What is the function of flagella and how can they be organized?
Flagellas function is for mobility. They can be arrange singularly- polar, in a tuft- lophotrichous, or all around- peritrichous.
What is the function of pili or fimbrae?
Fimbrae and pili are use for attachment, pili are used for gene transfer sex pili
What are detoxifying enzymes? Give an example
Detoxifying ensymes are binding proteins that alter harmful agents before they get into cell, example betalactamase destroys lactame ring in penicillin
Describe Chemoreceptor and where are they found?
Chemorecptor are found in the periplasmic space and sense chemical in the environment if good send bacteria toward if bad away, chemotaxis.
What kind of bacteria have flagella?
All spirillum and about 1/2 rods have flagella.
Energy to drive the basal body to move the flagella comes from what?
The rushing in of the protons in PMF cause the flagella to rotate.
Name the two different types of movement of bacteria?
Random movement or directed motility.
Name the 4 different types of directed motility?
Chemotaxis, phototaxis, aerotaxis, & magnetaxis ae the different types of motility for bacteria.
What are the two different types of coatings on the outside of some bacteria cells and what kind of layer is it ?
The two different types of coatings are a capsule and a slime layer and they are the glycocalyx layer.
What are the functions of capsules?
Function of a capsule are, attachment, resistance to drying, protection from phagocytic engulfment,a form of nutrients will bind certain ions and molecules,and depot for waste products.

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