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Glossary of Microbiology chapters 12-17

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List four ways that microorganisms can enter the body:
1. contact with infected person
2. indirect contact
3. contact with human carrier
4. contact with animal/insect carrier
What are disease carriers?
Someone who harbors a pathogen with or without developing and symptoms of the pathogen.
Explain droplet infection.
Diseases that are spread through the air.
The spread of microorganisms through direct contact does not include:
touching contaminated clothing
Carriers of infectious agents:
can spread their microoganisms to others who may become very ill with the disease.
Respiratory infections are easily spread by:
droplet infections, sneezing, and coughing
Fomites are:
inanimate objects such as bedding
Standard precautions state that ___ when handling body fluids.
gloves will be worn at all times
How does that skin protect the body against infection?
By providing unbroken barrier.
When is it possible for bacteria to gain entrance into the body through the skin?
When the skin is damaged, such as by burns, cuts, or scratches.
How does the body protect itself at these openings?
The skin kills or inhibits bacterial growth through its secretions. Lactic acid from the sweat glands and fatty acids from the sebaceous glands and the low pH environment they provide produce fight many pathogens.
What part do white blood cells play in protecting the body?
They destroy invading pathogens by phagocytosis.
What is a local infection?
An infection that is restricted to one area.
What is a general infection?
An infection that has spread to many parts of the body.
List some common symptoms of infetions.
Fever and inflammation, redness, swelling, and heat.
What is an incubation period?
The time required for development, as in symptoms of disease after infection.
What is pus?
A creamy white mixture of cell fluid containing living and dead leukocytes, bacteria, and damaged body cells that appear on infected sites.
Give a definition of antibody.
A protein produced by the plasma cells, T-lymphocytes, and released into the blood in response to the presence of a foreign antigen.
Explain why inflammation produces redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
A dilation of blood vessels brings more blood-carrying protective substance to the injured area, causing redness and heat. The walls enlarge, allowing antibodies and white blood cells to come to the area, causing painful swelling and pressure on nerve endings.
Describe how a white blood cell destroys bacteria.
Through phagocytosis: surrounding and engulfing foreign materials (cell eating).
The first like of defense includes:
skin, mucous membranes, and cilia.
Microoganisms that invade the body are called:
antigens
An immediate response to the prenetration of bacteria through the first line of defense may be:
inflammation
____ may be thought of as the soldiers fighting the enemy invaders, the ____ in the body's defense mechanism.
antibodies

antigens
What is a host?
Living plants or animals from which a parasite receives its nourishment.
What is interferon?
A chemical substance produced by cells after they become infected or parasitized with a virus.
What is interferon important?
It appears to be a factor in the recovery from viral infections, and it has been shown to prevent cancer cells from reproducing.
What is the drawback to using interferon?
The cost.
What are some characteristics of viruses of which the health care professional must be aware?
More resistant to some disinfectants that most bacteria;
most viruses are not affected by sulfonamides or other antibiotics
What causes AIDS?
HIV
What do the initials A-I-D-S signify?
A-acquired
I-immune
D-deficiency
S-syndrome
What are the three possible outcomes from infection by the causitive agent for AIDS?
1. a symptomatic infection
2. AIDS related complex (ARC)
3. full-blown AIDS
What are the symptoms of AIDS?
Mononucleosis-like symptoms; skin rashes on chest, abdomen, or back; excessive bleeding and bruising; diarrhea; weight loss; fever; and fatigue.
What is the incubation period for AIDS?
6 months to 5 years up to 10 years.
What is the one useful benefit of the HIV antibody test?
Potential blood donor complications
Viruses contain what components?
nucleic acid and protein coat
Serum hepatitis, known as ___, is of most concern to health care workers.
hepatitis B
Infectious hepatitis is cause by:
unsanitary conditions
What is the difference between a simple stain technique and the differential stain technique?
Only a single stain is added to the bacterial smear in a simple stain. More than one stain is used in a differential stain.
Describe the Gram stain.
An empirical method of differentiating bacteria species into two large groups based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls.
Why is a Gram stain a differential stain?
Because it uses more than one stain in a smear.
What are some characteristics of a gram positive bacteria?
low lipid concentrations
marked permeability
relatively complex for many species
more resistant
more sensitive
What are some characteristics of gram negative bacteria?
high lipid concentration
less permeable
relatively simple
less resistant
less sensitive
India ink stains are traditionally used to identify:
certain yeast cells that cause encephalitis
What type of vaccines are made from attentuated live pathogens?
live organisms
Vaccines are:
weakend organisms
Combination vaccines include:
MMR & DPT
What is immunity?
When pathogens and foreign materials succeed in penetrating a person's first line of defense and the body's ability to resist these invaders and the diseases they cause.
What is natural immunity?
Inherited and permanent immunities.
Name four sources of natural immunity:
1. unbroken skin
2. phagocytes
3. tears
4. mucus
What is acqurired immunity?
The reaction that occurs as a result of exposure to invaders.
How is active acquried immunity obtained?
When a person already has the disease.
How long does active acquired immunity last?
A lifetime (forever)
How does an infant obtain passive acquired immunity?
breastfeeding from mother
How long does passive acquired immunity last?
a few weeks
Colostrum provides ___ immunity.
passive natural
____ occurs when the body's immune system fails and severe allergies occur.
Hypersensitivity
A severe allergic response may be ____ while a much more mild response may be ____.
anaphylaxis

hives
A bubble baby may be the victim of an ____ disorder.
immune
Rheumatic fever is an example of an ____ disorder.
autoimmune
A protein substance formed in response to the presence of certain other proteins is called an:
antibody

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