Glossary of Microbiology Tortora Chap Two

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Define Atom
Smallest unit of matter, nondivisible by chemical means
What are the physical properties of elements?
States of matter, size, texture, odors, taste
What are the two parts of atomic structure?
Central Nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons and outer shells (energy levels) consisting of electrons
What are the static particles?
Neutrons and Protons
Atomic weight or mass consists of what?
the combined number of protons and neutrons
Which particle is constantly in motion?
Are all atoms electrically neutral?
What does electrically neutral mean?
the number of protons equals the number of electrons. The positive charge plus the negitive charge equal zero
What are the chemical properties of elements?
What do you do? What kind of molecule can you form?
What are the outer shell electrons called?
Valance electrons
What is the order of electron distribution?
2,8,8 etc.
What is a molecule?
contains 2 or more atoms
What is a compound?
Contains 2 or more elements
Two types of reactions between atoms?
Ionic and Covalent bonds
Is every molecule a compound?
No but every compound is a molecule.
What is the Octet rule?
atoms come together to form molecules in such a way that each atom ends up with 8 electrons in its outer shell.
On the periodic chart what is contained in column VIII?
the inert gases, tend to never react
What is an element
any substance that contains just one type of atom
What is an ionic reaction?
atoms give up or take on one or more electrons
What is an ion?
when the atom carries a charge ie there are more protons than electrons (+) or more electrons than protons (-)
What is a Cation
has a positive charge (+) more protons
What is an Anion?
Has a negative charge (-)more electrons
Characteristics of CoValent Bonds
Much stronger than ionic. Atoms share the electrons
Name two types of CoValent Bonds
Polar and non polar
What is a non polar covalent bond?
electrons are shared equally between two atoms
What is a polar covalent bond?
electrons are not shared equally causing a partial negative or partial postive charge
What is electronegativity?
relative measurement of an elements attractiveness to electrons If differene of electronegativity is >2 than is ionic bond if difference is <2 than covalent
What is SPONCH
the building blocks of life, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Hydrogen
N-H or O-H
biologically important polar covalent bonds, remember the bully will have a negative image.
Do not show preference between atoms
No Preference even sharing
Hydrogen bonds
form between hydrogen atoms and relatively electronegative elements like oxygen and nitrogen. Must already be part of a polar covalent bond.
Very weak bond that is typically broken down by enviromental factors. When there are many hydrogen bonds can be a stabilitizing force.
What is Denaturation?
When hydrogen bonds are broken in large structures where they are providing stabilizaton
What is a solution?
Homogeneous mixture
What is a Solute
Material that was initially a solid
What is a Solvent
Liquid that disolves the solute
What is the "universal solvent" for ions and polar molecules?
What is a Sphere of hydration?
Hydration shells when water reacts with an ionic molecule the molecules that are developed
Like dissolves like
to disolve a polar solute requires a polar solvent. Nonpolar molecules do not disolve in water they cluster together
What is a hydrophobic interaction?
When nonpolar molecules cluster together in the presence of water
Why are hydrophobic interactions important?
Stabilizes membrane structures, protein structures and enzyme and substrate bonding
Polar equals?
NonPolar equals?
Characteristics of Acids
inorganic or organic, dissociate in water to release H+ ions. Sometimes called proton doners because they donate hydrogen ions
Characteristics of Bases
Alkalines, Dissociate in water to release hydroxide ions Proton acceptors
pH scale
Measurement of H+ concentration in a solution. The low range 1-7 are acids and the high range 7-14 are bases.
What is a buffer?
Combine with or release H+ ions to keep pH stable. maintain pH homeostasis. does not neutralize the solution just maintains the pH
What is a salt?
An ionic compound formed whtn acids react with bases.
What is an electrolyte?
Salts dissolved in water
Characteristics of Macromolecules (polymers)
Main chemical component of cells, composed of "building blocks" called monomers. Monomers are grouped into classes according to their chemical properties.
What is an organic molecule
Carbon is present represents core of molecule having a carbon backbone
What is the polymer for Monosaccharides?
What is the polymer for Fatty Acids?
What is the polymer for Nucleic Acids?
What is the polymer for Amino Acids?
Which polymers are informational?
Nuleotides and Proteins
What are functional groups?
Specific groups of atoms that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions and are responsible for most of the characteristic chemical properties and many of the physical properties of a particular organic compound
Methyl Nonpolar
Hydroxyl Polar
Carbonyl Polar
Carboxyl Acid
-NH3 (-NH4+)
Amino Basic-proteins
Phosphate-ATP and DNA
Sulfydryl-protein structure and stabilization
Ester-Bacteria and eukaryotic plasma membranes Lipids
What is the general structure of Carbohydrates
Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Types of Monosaccharides
contains between 3-7 carbons. Pentoses (5) ribose and deoxyribose. Hexoses (6) Glucose and Fructose
What is a Disaccharide
2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration (H2O removed) synthesis
Disaccharides are connected by what?
Covalent bonds called glycosidic linkages
What are the two orientations of glycosidic linkages?
Alpha-hydrogens face same direction and Beta hydrogens face opposite
Alpha Glycosidic linkages are important for?
in carbohydrates used as carbon and energy reserves
Beta Glycosidic linkages are important for?
in carbohydrates that function as cell wall subunits
What is a Polysaccharide?
100's or 1000's of monomeric subunits
What does peptidoglycan contain?
glucose derivatives
What are some examples of Polysaccharides?
Glycogen, Cellulose, Starch and dextran
Name the types of Lipids.
Fatty Acids, Simple lipids, Complex lipids, Steriods, and Waxes
Fatty acids are made up of what?
Long chain hydrocarbons usually 16 or 18 carbons ending in an acid group
What is the difference in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
saturated have no double bonds in the carbon chain usually solid at room temperature. Unsaturated have at lease one double bond in the chain. Less hydrogen more liquid.
What is an example of a simple lipid?
3 fatty acids bonded to one molecule of glycerol is a what?
What is the linkage that links the glyceried and the 3 fatty acids in a triglyceride?
ester linkage
What causes a complex lipid?
When one fatty acid chain on the glycerol is replaces by an organic molecule
Examples of complex lipids?
Phospholipid and glycolipids
What are glycolipids used for?
As markers in cell membrane recognition
What has high concentrations of wax in their cell walls and must use Acid-stain to stain?
Mycobacterium smegmatis which causes both TB and Leprosy
What are Nuclectides composed of?
A Pentose sugar, A nitrogen base and a phosphate group
What are the two classes of nitrogen bases that identify Nuclectides?
Purines (G-A) and Pyrimidines (C-T-U)
What are the roles of Nuclectides?
Building blocks of nucleic acids carriers of chemical energy. Regulatory molecules
What is the largest of the micromolecules defined by long polymers of nucleotides in a defined sequence?
Nucleic Acids
Name two Nucleic Acids
Characteristics of DNA
Double stranded helix held together by H-bonds. Backbone held together by phosphodiester bonds.consists of base pairs A-T and C-G
What is Antiparallel?
What is the function of DNA
To code and store genetic information
What are the 3 types of RNA
Messenger, Transfer and Ribosomal
What are the characteristics of RNA
Single Stranded involved in protein synthesis
DNA is the recipe and...
RNA is the chef
Who are the workhorses of Macromolecules?
Proteins are Polymers of Amino Acids connected by ?
Dehydration synthesis creating Peptide bonds
Proteins contain what functional groups?
Carboxylic acid group and amino group
What is a dipeptide?
2 amino acids linked together
what is a Tripeptide
3 amino acids linked together
What is a polypeptide
>3 amino acids linked together
What are the two main types of proteins?
Catalytic (enzymes) or structural
What are the 4 levels of Protein structure?
Primary, Secondary, Tertitary and Quaternary
What is a linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds?
Primary Structure Protein
What are the two types of Secondary Structure?
Pleated sheets and helix
What is the final 3-D shape of polypeptide?
Tertiary Structure
How is Tertiary structure maintained?
By bonding between the R groups
What are the types of bonds at the Tertiary level?
Ionic, Hydrogen, Hydrophobic interactions, and Covalent bonds (disulfide bonds)
When 2 sufide groups bond up and diffuse their hydrogens the sufilde can then bond in a ?
Disulfide bridge
What describes association between polypeptides in complex proteins?
Quaternary structure
What is it called when a protein changes and shape and therefore its function? A what level does it happen most?
Denaturing at level 2
What type of bonds can be found in the quaternary structure?
Disufide bonds

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