Glossary of Microbiology Final Exam!!!!!!
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- What is the most common cause of ascending UTI?
- This organism produces Urinary Stones (calculi)
- Proteus Mirabilis
Viruses are one of the greatest causes of UTI.
Certain viruses can be recovered from urine in the absence of UT disease
- This organism has a particular propensity in causing UTI in young sexually active women?
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus
(just remember vaginal sap... one of the great byproducts of sex)
- Produces potent urease
- P. mirabilis
- These two species are most often associated with UTI in hospitalized pts where their multiple antibiotics resistance can cause tx difficulties?
- Staphylococcus epidermis and Enterococcus
acts on what?
- acts on urea to produce ammonia making urine alkaline
- Certain serotypes of thisvirus has been implicated as a cause of HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS.
- This virus enters the body via the respiratory tract and spread through the body and infect epithelial cells in the kidney tubules and ureter where they estabilsh latency but not infectious virus.
- Human Polyomaviruses (JC and BK)
- This rodent borne form of virus infects capillary blood vessels in the kidney and can cause a renal syndrome
Many different forms of parasites cause UTI.
- 2 fungi that cause UTI
- Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum
- The protozoa that causes urethritis in makes and vaginitis in females
- Trichomonas vaginalis
- Infection with this causes inflammation of the bladder.
- Schistosoma haematobium
A variety of mechanical factors predispose a person to UTI.
-anything that disrupts NL urine flow or complete emptying of the bladder or facilities access of organisms to the bladder will predispose one to infection.
- This makes women's UT less effective in avoiding infx
- Shorter urethra
Sex facilitates the movement of organisms up the urethra (we got screwed... always pee after sex)
- This makes UTIs more common in male infants.
- Uncircumcized peniseses-- allows for colonization of the urethra with fecal organisms
- This may lead to ascent of infection into the kidney
- residual urine of more than 2-3 mL
- This problem may lead to obstruction of urine flow and recurrent infx.
- loss of neurological control of bladder--> residual volume in the bladder
- This is common in children with anatomic abnormalities of the UT and predisposes them to ascending infx and kidney damage
- Vesicoureteral Reflux (goes back to the ureters from the bladder)
most urinary pathogens originate in the________, but only special _________ and facultative species such __________ can colonize and infect the UT.
- fecal flora
- Some serotypes of E.coli have particular types of ________ which enable them to adhere to urethral and bladder epithelium.
- Production of _________ by E.coli is linked with the capacity to cause kidney damage.
A healthy UT is resistant to bacterial colonization
- Three mechanisms of the UT that dispose of organisms in the urethra.
- 1. pH
2. chemical content
3. flushing mechanism
- Three clinical features of ACUTE LOWER UTIs.
- 1. dysuria
- Three features of urine during ACUTE LOWER UTIs
- 1. pyuria
- DX of Acute Lower UTI
- This is usually caused by people lacking antibacterial substances normally found in prostatic fluid; usually caused by E.coli
- Acute Bacterial Prostatis
- S&S of Acute Bacterial Prostatis
- The infection has ascended form the bladder to the upper UT and kidney
- Upper UTIs
- Infection of the kidney; pt have lower UT symptoms plus fever... (you know this... think CVA tenderness)
- Pyelonephritis (oh god not again)
- This is a common case of Pyelonephritis and renal abscesses are usually present
- Repeated episodes of Pyelonephritis leads to...
- HTN and loss of fx of renal tissue
- Bacteriuria- >10^5 org/mL
only one bacteria species
- Sample collection
- urine is collected in a sterile container after carfully cleansing the external genitalia with soap and HOH and after allowing the first part of the urine to be voided to wash out the urethral contaminants
(babies get a U bag)
(catheter w/ syringe is also acceptable)
- Tx of UTI
- Antibacterail agents
- Prevention of UTI
- regularly emptying the bladder(especially after sex)
prophylactic use of Abx may prevent recurrent infx
reduce infx by good catheter care proceedures
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