Glossary of Microbiology Final Exam
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- Looked at cork. Coined term cell from his observations
- Robert Hooke
- Cells are the basic unit of organization for all living things
- Cell Theory
- Tried to dissprove spontaneous generation. Meat and maggot experiment.
- Disproved spontaneous generation. Flask experiment
- Added carbolic acid to wound infections. First disinfectant
- Proved 1 microbe causes 1 specific disease
- Microbe must be identified in individuals with disease
- Must get organism cultivated in pure cultures
- Must be able to innoculate a suseptible animal w organism .That organism must cause same disease.
- Reisolate organism from test animal into pure culture and identify it as original microbe
- DNA organized into chromosomes
- Membrane bound organelles
- Cell Walls
- Contains nucleus
- Have more surface area compared to volume to transport nutrients in/out faster
- One circular strand of DNA
- no membrane bound organelles. Everything has to happen in cell membrane
- Binary Fission/Reproduction
- Do both Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes have Ribosomes?
- Yes. 70s/80s
- Do animals have cell walls?
- No. Plants and Prokaryotes have cell walls
- What is the major function of bacterial cell walls?
- Homeostasis.Prevent cells from rupturing when H2O inside the cell is greater than outside the cell.
- Responsible for the shape of the cell.
- Cell wall
- Serve as a a point of anchorage
- Cell Wall
- Clinically, Why is the cell wall important?
- Contributes to the ability of some species to cause disease AND is the site of action of some antibiotics
- Consists of many layers of peptidoglycan. Forming thick rigid structure
- Thin layer of peptidoglycan
- NAG's and NAM's
- Combination of peptide bonds and carbohydrates.
What Peptidoglycan is made of
- Plasma Membrane
- Seletively Permeable
Most important function
- Why is Gram- cell more permeable?
- It has porins( protein channels) and periplasmic membrane
- Techoic Acid
- LPS w/ Lipid A
- Passive Transport
From HIGHER CONCENTRATION to LOWER CONCENTRATION
- Movement following a gradient
- Passive Transport
Example rock rolling down hill
- Active Transport
- Movement against a gradient
Only transport to require energy.
- Gram+ endospores
- Protein Synthesis
- What is the cells capsule made of?
- What is the purpose of the glycocalyx?
- Protects cell from drying out
Adhere to surfaces
Protection from phagocytosis
- What are specialized resting cells?
- Where is the periplasm located?
- Between the cell membrane and outer wall.
- Function of pili
- Attachment and mating
All Gram - have pili
- Function of Flagella
- Arrangement of Flagella
- When do endospores form?
- Only in unfavorable environment
- Endospores can survive
- boiling(for hours)
- Free living protoplasts
- Cells in which the cell wall has been removed but lysis has not yet occurred
- organic compound
- compound whose chemical element includes CARBON
- 4 Most important macromolecules
- Small units that make up macromolecules
- Breaking of macromolecules
- making of macromolecules
gives off H2O
- Most abundant organic component
- Destruction of proteins
- store energy as fat
important in cell membrane
- energy source
component of cell wall
5 or 6 carbon ring
- Chemical energy
- What is the sum of all chemical reactions within living organisms?
- What is a catabolic reaction?
- Release of energy as large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
- What is anabolic?
- Energy requiring
Building of macromolecules
- What are the 5 steps of metabolism?
- 1.Entry-raw materials are brought into the cell
2.Catabolic reaction-break down of raw materials
3.build up basic building materials. Amino Acids for protein
4.Polymerizationjoin building material
5. Assembly- finishing touches
- What is oxidation?
- Loss of e-
- What is reduction?
- Gaining of e-
- What is the function of NAD/FAH?
- Transport Hydrogen
- What is the final e- acceptor in Aerobic Metabolism?
- What does the ETC do?
- Transports e- from NADH to O2/or N2S2
- What is chemiosmosis?
- Movement of H+ across membrane using ATPaseprotein channel. Formation of ATP.
- What is Respiration?
- Movement of e-through ETC end with O2 taking e- and binding with H+ forming H2O
- What comes out of glycolysis?
- What goes in Glycolysis?
- What goes in the Kreb Cycle?
- Pyruvic Acid
- What comes out of Kreb Cycle?
- Anaerobic Respiration
- O2 not final e- acceptor
H2S, or H2N
- No ETC
- How is energy generated in Fermentation?
- Substrate level phosphorylation
- What is genetic engineering?
- manipulation of DNA to further our ability to uarantee quality of human life
- Intermediate product
- What are 2 common growth requirements for bacteria?
- How is nutrition defined?
- Chemicals from environmentused to build molecules needed to build new cells
- Why is Carbon important?
- needed for organic molecules
- Nucleic Acid DNA/RNA
- DNA/RNA backbone
- What are Trace Elements?
Aids in the activities co-factors/co-enzymes
- What are organic growth factors?
- Vitamins needed in minute quantities
Precursors of Growth factors
- Do all microbes require O2?
- Yes, But not atmospheric O2
- What is catalase?
- Aerobes produce enzyme that breaks down Hydrogen Peroxide to H2O and O2
- Survive very high temp.
- Same basic temp range that we live in
- survive very cold temp.
- like high salt
- What pH do most bacteria grow thw best in?
- Direct Count
- Use slide called counting chamber
- Plate Count
- calculate # of living cells
- Most Probable Number
- dilution of liquid samples
- What is genetics?
- The study of heredity and variations among organisms
- What are nucleotides made up of?
- base,sugar,and phosphate
- What are genes?
- Segments made of very specific moleules
- DNA to RNA by RNA POLYMERASE
- RNA to PROTEIN by RIBOSOMES
- What is unique characteristic of bacteria?
- Circular DNA , smaller than a chromosome
- What is a mutation?
- Any chemical change in a cells genotype
- Are most mutations lethal?
- Mutations can be:
- Rare- Spontaneous
- Mutations can be induced:
- Physical(UV light, radiation)
Chemical (smoking or pesticides)
- What are the types of mutations?
- Unlike sexual reproduction itis not essential part of life cycle of bacteria
- Genetic Transfer
- Only a portion of a cells genome is transferred to another cell
- Genetic Transfer
- Transfer is only one way
- Genetic Transfer
- DNA leaves one cell,exists in extracellular environment before being taken into another cell
- Carried out by plasmids
Plasmid (in donor cell) makes a copy of itself and another cell donor transfers the copy to the recipient cell
- Involves (viruses)
Occurs when a virus infects bacteria
- What is taxononmy?
- Classification system
- Genus species
- Death of a microbe
- cells can no longer divide to make a new cell
- inhibiting the growth of microbes or killing
- inhibiting not killing
- control by killing
- destroy All Microbial life
- reduce # of pathhogens to a level they pose no danger of disease
- Instruments and surfaces are made safe
- kills microbes on skin or other living tissue
- heat-moist heat kills more readily than dry heat
- does not kill most bacteria
- kills most bacteria from OUTSIDE IN/ RATHER THAN INSIDE OUT
- damages DNA
- CHEMICAL ANTIBIOTIC/GERMCIDES
- Cause larvae damage
- Abosorb nutrients through host
3 PARTS: Scolex,Germinal Center,Reproductive
- Examples: Hookworm
- Transmitted-larvae uncooked pork
- Transmitted-Mosquito-> Lymph->swelling blood->mosquito
NO MOSQUITO NO DISEASE
- Transmitted-Barefoot in soil
- transmits disease between 2 hosts
- place where microbes can be maintained between hosts
eat,rest,reproduce,develop for an extended period of time
- Arthropod vector
- can be mechanical or biological
- Pick up pathogen on body part and carries it one place to another
- essential links in transmission of disease
- VIRUS IN NON REPLICATING STATE
OUTSIDE HOSTS CELL
- VIRUSES CAN:
- Direct their own reproduction
Contain some macromolecules found in cellular organisms
- VIRUSES LACK:
- OWN Metabolism
- Classification of viruses
- HOST RANGE-Spectrum of organism a virus attacks
- LIFE CYCLE OF VIRUSES:
- Absorption-attach host cell
Penetration-viral genome penetrates host cell
Viral Synthesis-makes viral components
Maturation-components assemble to new virion
Release exit host cell often killing cell
- STRUCTURE OF VIRUSES:
- Nucleic Acid core-surrounded by protein sometimes membrane
Nucleic acid- DNA/RNA ds,ss
Envelope pieces of hosts cells plasma membrane acquired as it emerged from its host cell
- Viral Growth Curve
- 1 step
- Develpomental Pathways
- Lytic Pathway
- produces new virions
kills host cell quickly
- Lysogenic Pathway
- long state of quiet
host cell not damaged
viral genome enters host cell
- infect plant
circular molecule of ssRNA no protein coat
- Do healthy people have more microbes than human cells in and on there body?
- What is health?
- Relative state of equilibrium
organ systems function adequately
- What is disease?
- A state of relative disequilibrium
May be resolved by recovery or death
- Does disease resolve itself?
- Recover or Die
- What are Normal Flora?
- Microbes that coexist with the human bodyin stable relationship
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