Glossary of Microbiology Exam 3
Other Decks By This User
- Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
- Innate immunity that we are born with.
- A non-specific response to injury.
- Controlled by brain. Macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines.
- involved in adaptive immunity. respond specifically to organisms or other foreign materials.
- Immunoglobulin protein produced by the body in response to a substance and that reacts specifically with that substance.
- Specific foreign agents. A molecule that reacts specifically with an antibody.
- First line of defense
- Mucous membranes
- Second line of defense
- Formation of blood
- All the white blood cells.
Eosinophil, Basophil, Neutrophil, Monocyte, T Lymphocyte, B Lymphocyte
- A Granulocyte that stains red. Involved in allergic reactions. Contains Histinase.
- A granulocyte that stains blue/purple. Involved in allergic reactions.
- Contain granules with histamine which increase blood flow. Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils.
- A granulocyte that doesn't stain well. Most abundant. Most important. Also called PMN's. Kill anything. Multi-lobed nucleus.
- Mononuclear Phagocytes
- One round nucleus. No granules. Not as abundant as neutrophils.
- A mononuclear phagocyte in the blood. Also called Macrophages when in the tissue.
- In cases of TB, monocytes go to the lungs and become a granuloma.
- Natural Killer Cells
- Cells that find a target, release perforin and kill the target cell.
- Primary lymphoid organs
- The bone marrow and thymus
- Bone Marrow
- Produces B lymphocytes. Create antibodies.
- Produces T lymphocytes. Responsible for cellular immune responses.
- Secondary Lymphoid Organs
- Adenoids, Tonsils, Spleen, Appendix, Lymph Nodes, SALT, MALT
- Adenoids, tonsils, spleen, appendix and lymph nodes
- Create immunity
- Skin Associated Lymphoid Tissues
- Mucous Associated Lymphoid Tissues
- Antimicrobial Secretions
- Sweat, saliva, tears, hcl, lysozyme, peroxidase, lactoferrin, normal flora.
- Sweat, saliva, tears
- Helpful in mounting nonspecific responses to foreign objects
- Acid in stomach. Kills foreign substances.
- Found in tears and saliva. Kills gram (+) cocci by degrading peptidoglycan cell wall.
- Found in neutropils in saliva and milk. Extremely important diagnostic test in microbiology. Catalase (+) vs. (-) organisms.
- An iron-binding protein found in leukocytes, saliva, mucus, milk and other substances. Helps defend the body by depriving microorganisms of iron. Associated with gonorrhea.
- Normal Flora
- Microorganisms that colonize the body but don't cause disease.
- Cause holes in bacteria membrane. Bacteria leaks and dies.
- Streptococcus characteristics
- Catalase negative
- Staphylococcus characteristics
- Catalase (+)
- Relationship between two organisms in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected. Ex. Lactobacillus (changes pH)
- The complement system
- A series of proteins that constantly circulate in the blood and destroy bacteria by disrupting their cytoplasmic membranes.
- Primary and Secondary (Memory)Response
- First exposure to antigen elicits relatively low amts. of first IGM, followed by IGG in blood. Second exposure, which characterizes memory of the adaptive immune system, elicits rapid production of relatively large amts. of IGG.
- Antibody Structure
- Light Chain-FAB region-binds to antigen
Heavy Chain-FC Region-constant region
- Five classes of immunoglobins
- IGG - most
IGM - biggest
IGE - least
- IGG characteristics
- Most abundant in circulating blood
Attaches to neutrophil and goes after target cell. Phagocytosis. ADCC. Only one that passes through placenta.
- IGM characteristics
- First antibodies that we develop.
Largest in size
Newborns have alot of IGM
- What antibodies do you have when you have Acute Mononucleosis?
- IGM antibodies
- IGA characteristics
- Most abundant immunoglobin in body.
In serum and mucous.
Important in secretions (saliva, breast milk, etc.)
- IGD characteristics
- Not important, not clearly defined.
- IGE characteristics
- Produced when you have allergies.
Basophils bind to IGE and release histamine.
- Immunoglobins with first and second exposure to antigens.
- T Lymphocytes
- Made in Thymus
Cellular mediated antibody
- Two types of T Cells
- Inflammatory-T helper
T suppressor-suppresses immune response
- 3 types of granulocytes
- Specific immunity
- The immune response is directed only against the offending agent.
- Memory Cells
- Long-lived cells that respond more quickly if the antigen is encountered again.
- Anamnestic Response
- Secondary Response. Enhanced immune response that occurs upon second or subsequent exposure to specific antigen, caused by the rapid activation of long-lived memory cells.
- Anamnestic Response Examples
- Allergies such as bee stings, venom, penicillin. Response can be fatal.
- Same as antigen.
- Glycoprotein molecules that react specifically with the antigen that induced them. Ex. Group A strep. Normally in the blood.
- Humoral Response
- B-cell Antibody response.
- Cellular Immune Response
- T-Cell Mediated
- Examples of Antigens
- Fungi, Bacteria, Mycobacteria, Chemicals, Drugs, Foods.
- Substance that combines with specific antibodies but cannot incite the production of those antibodies unless it is attached to a larger carrier molecule.
- What is the weight of Antigens normally?
- High molecular weight.
- What makes antigens specific
- Inflammatory Response
- Phagocytes enter tissue. Triggers C3 to be formed. Binds to phagocytes. Complement and phagocytes bind to an antibody.
- What is an example of a low molecular weight antigen?
- Penicillin. It is not antigenic by itself. It hooks up with a carrier molecule and then its antigenic.
- 4 signs of inflammation
- Another name for antibodies
- Immunoglobins or Glycoproteins.
- Heightens phagocytic activity. aids phagocytes in digesting bacteria.
- Complement causes lysis. Thousands of holes in the membrane.
- Proteins made by cells that affect the behaviour of other cells.
- A type of Cytokine important in chemotaxis of immune cells.
- Type of Cytokine. Very Antiviral.
- What are 3 types of Interferons
- Alpha Interferons
- WBC's. Fever production.
- Beta Interferons
- Fibrous connective tissue. Antiviral.
- Gamma Interferons
- Most important Interferon. Response mounted by lymphocytes. Activates macrophages.
- Mechanism of Interferon
- Virus infects cells. Virus starts making double stranded DNA. In turn signals the cell to produce interferon. In turn signals the cell to make enzymes that degrade messenger RNA.
- Cytokines produced by leukocytes
- Interleukin I
- Main interleukin. Inflammatory response. Induces fever. Triggers increase of neutrophils. Triggers increase of production of macrophages.
- Colony Stimulating Factors
- A group of cytokines that direct the formation of the various types of blood cells from stem cells. Keep hemopoeisis going.
- Tumor Necrosis Factors
- A group of cytokines that play an important role in the inflammatory response and other aspects of immunity.
- Two types of tumor necrosis factors
- Alpha-cause neutrophils to migrate to the site of inflammation - induce fever.
Beta-Increases killing of target cells.
- Thr process by which certain cells ingest particulate matter by surrounding and enveloping those materials, bring them into the cell in a membrane-bound vesicle.
- Phagocytosis Stages
- Attachment-phag.cells bind to microbes.
Phagosome-membrane bound vacuole.
- Occurs when plasma leaks into tissue
- Due to increase blood flow
- Sign of increased blood flow and heat
- Pressure from fluid and increase blood. Nerve endings send message to brain.
- 2 types of fever
- Endogenous Fever
- The body produces cytokines
- Exogenous Fever
- A foreign bacteria produces a toxin.
- An acute, life threatening illness caused by infectious agents or their products circulating in the bloodstream. Caused by gram(-) bacteria. They break down and produce toxins which cause death.
- Changes in Iron
- The body shuts down production of iron during infections such as gonorrhea.
You must Login or Register to add cards