Glossary of Microbiology Chapter 22

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What are the portals of entry?
Skull or vertebral fractures
Medical procedures
Along peripheral nerves
Blood or lymph
Meningitis is...?
Inflammation of the meninges
Encephalitis is...?
Inflammation of the brain
What is Bacterial Meningitis?
Fever, headache, stiff joints(neck)
Followed by nausea & vomiting
Convulsions and coma
How is Bacterial Meningitis diagnosed and treated?
Diagnosed by Gram stain of CSF
Treated with Cephalosporins
What is Listeria monocytogenes?
Gram + aerobic rod
Usually food-borne, can be transmitted to fetus
Reproduce in phatocytes
Treated w/ampicillin + penicillin
GI tract infection
What is Clostridium tetani?
Gram +, endospore forming, obligate anaerobe
Grown in deep wounds
Tetanospasmin released from dead cells antagonizes ACh in NMJ
Vaccination with tetanus toxoid booster
Treatment with tetanus immune globulin
What is Clostridium botulinum?
Gram +, endospore forming, obligate anaerobe
Disease due to ingestion of botulinal toxin
--blocks release of ACh
--flaccid paralysis
--Proper canning
--Nitrites prevent endospore germination
Treatment-supportive care and antitoxin
Infant botulism-growing in intestines
Wound botulism-growth in wounds
What is mycobacterium leprae?
Acid-fast rod that grows best at 30 Degrees Celsius
Grows in peripheral n nerves and skin
Transmission requires prolonged contact with an infected person
What is a Tuberculoid form?
loss of sensation in skin areas, positive lepromin test
What is a Lepromatous form?
disfiguring nodules over body, negative lepromin test
What is a lepromin test?
a skin reaction to injected lepromatous tissue
What is African Trypanosomiasis?
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is chronic (2-4 years)
T.b. rhodesiense infection is more acute(a few months)
Transmitted from animals to human by tsetse fly
Prevention-vector elimination
Treatment-Eflornithine blocks parasitic enzyme
--Treatment is fatal in 12% of cases
Parasite evades antibodies through antigenic variation
What is Sleeeping Sickness?
60,000,000 at risk
50,000 currently infected
Leathery sore at site of bite
Edema, especially of the face
Anemia may be present
What is American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' Disease)?
Trypanosoma cruzi
Reservoir-rodents, opossums, armadillos
Vector-reduviid bug(aka kissing bug)
Most lethal in children
--10% mortality
Treatment difficult and often uneffective

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