Glossary of Microbiology Chapter 14
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- Pathology is...?
- The study of disease.
- Etiology is...?
- The study of the cause of a disease.
- Pathogenesis is...?
- Development of disease.
- Infection is...?
- Colonization of the body by pathogens.
- Disease is...?
- An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally.
- Symbiosis is...?
- The relationship between normal microbiota and the host.
- Commensalism is...?
- One organism is benefitted and the other is not affected at all.
- Mutualism is...?
- Both organisms benefit.
- Parasitism is...?
- One organisms is benefitted at the expense of the other.
- Microbial antagonism is...?
- Competition between microbes.
- How do normal microbiota protect the host?
- Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy.
Producing anti-bacterial chemicals.
- What are probiotics?
- Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect.
- What is Koch's Postulates?
- Used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
- What is Koch's 1st Postulate?
- The same pathogen must be present in every case.
- What is Koch's 2nf Postulate?
- The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.
- What is Koch's 3rd Postulate?
- The pathogen must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy animal.
- What is Koch's 4th Postulate?
- The pathogen from the inoculated animal must be the same as the original from step 1.
- A symptom is...?
- Change in body function that is felt by a patient as the result of a disease.
- A sign is...?
- Change in the body that can be measured or observed as the result of a disease.
- A syndrome is...?
- A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease.
- A communicable disease(or contagious) is...?
- Easily spread from 1 host to another.
- A non-communicable disease is...?
- A disease that is not transmitted.
- An incidence is...?
- Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time.
- Prevalence is...?
- Fraction of a population having a disease at any given time.
- Sporadic disease is...?
- A disease that occurs occasionally in a population.
- Endemic is...?
- Disease constantly present in a population.
- Epidemic is...?
- Disease acquired by many in a short time.
- Pandemic is...?
- Worldwide epidemic.
- Herd immunity is...?
- Immunity in most of a population.
- Acute disease is...?
- Symptoms develop rapidly.
- Chronic disease is...?
- Disease develops slowly.
- Subacute disease is...?
- Symptoms between acute and chronic.
- Latent disease is...?
- Disease with a period of no symptoms.
- Local infection is...?
- limited to a small area.
- Systemic infection is...?
- throughout the body.
- Focal infection is...?
- a systemic infection that began as a local infection.
- Bacteremia is...?
- bacteria in the blood.
- Septicemia is...?
- growth of bacteria in the blood.
- Toxemia is...?
- Toxins in the blood.
- Viremia is...?
- Viruses in the blood.
- Primary infection is...?
- Acute infection that causes the initial illness.
- Secondary Infection is...?
- Opportunistic infection after a primary infection.
- Sub-clinical disease is...?
- No noticeable signs or symptoms.
- Predisposing Factors are...?
Climate and weather
- humans are reservoirs of what?
- HIV, gonorrhea
(carriers may have unapparent infections or latent diseases)
- Animals are reservoirs of what?
- Rabies, Lyme Disease
Some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans.
- Non-Living (soil) is a reservoir for what?
- Botulism, tetanus
- Direct contact is...?
- requires close association between infected and susceptible host.
- Indirect contact is...?
- spread by fomites
- What are fomites?
- nonliving objects
- A vehicle is...?
- transmission by an inanimate reservoir (like food or water)
- A vector is...?
- disease carriers
(arthropods, especially fleas, ticks and mosquitos)
- Mechanical vectors are...?
- arthropod carries pathogen on feet
- Biological vectors are...?
- pathogen reproduces in vector.
- Nosocomial Infections are...?
- From hospitals
5-15% of all hospital patients acquire nosocomial infections
- What is C. difficile?
- Affects colon.
Symptoms include changes in bowel function.
Pathology of this organism has changed over time with wide-spread use of antibiotics.
- Reasons for Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Contributing Factors
--Evolution of new strains
Inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides
Changes in weather patterns
Ecological disaster, war, expanding human settlement
Animal control measures
Public Health Failure
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