Glossary of Microbiology Ch. 5 working glossary

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the energy required to bring substrates to the reactive state
activation energy
a microorganism able to use o2 in respiration
the sum total of all biosynthetic reactions in the cell
a microorganism that either can or must grow in the absence of o2
the series of manipulations used to prevent contamination during the handling of sterile objects or microbial cultures
aseptic technique
a multiprotein enzyme complex embedded in the membrane that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP coupled to dissipation of the proton motive force
ATP synthase/ATPase
an organism capable of biosynthesizing all cell material from CO2 as the sole carbon source
biochemical reactions leading to the production of usable energy (usually ATP) by the cell
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction but that is not consumed in the reaction
a theory describing linkage of ATP synthesis to dissipation of a proton motive force
a cyclical series of reactions resulting in the conversion of acetate to two CO2
citric acid cycle
a small nonproein molecule that participates in a catalytic reaction as part of an enzyme
a culture medium composed of digests of chemically undefined substances such as yeast and meat extracts
complex medium
an aqueous solution of carious nutrients suitable for the growth of microorgansims
culture medium
a culture medium whose precise chemical composition is known
defined medium
a substance that can accept electrons from some other substance, thereby becoming reduced in the process
electron acceptor
a substance that can donate electrons to some electron acceptor, thereby becoming oxidized in the process
electron donor
energy requiring
a protein that has the ability to speed up (catalyze) a specific chemical reaction
energy releasing
anaerobic catabolism in which an organic compound serves as both an electron donor and an electron acceptor and in which ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
energy available to do work; g^0' is free energy under standard conditions
free energy
a biochemical pathway in which glucose is fermented yielding energy (ATP) and various fermentation products. Also called the Embden-Meyerhof pathway
the production of ATP at tthe expense of a proton motive force formed by electron transport
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP from a proton motive force formed from photosynthetic reactions
an energized state of the membrane resulting from the separation of charge and the elements of water (H+ vs OH-) across the membrane
proton motive force
a culture that contains a single kind of microorganism
pure culture
the inherent tendency (measured in volts) of a compound to donate electrons
reduction potential (Esub0' under standard conditions)
the process in which a compound is oxidized w/ o2 (or an o2 substitute) functioning as the terminal electron acceptor, usually accompanied by ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation
iron chelators that can bind iron present at very low concentrations
production of ATP by the direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate molecule from phosphorylated organic compound to ADP
substrate-level phosphorylation

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