Glossary of Microbiology Ch. 30 (final exam)

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the discipline that uses microorganisms, usually grown on a large scale, to produce valuable commercial products or carry out important chemical transformations
industrial microbiology
term used to describe the reactions carried out by microorganisms in industrial microbiology
the major organisms used in biocatalytic processes are:
fungi (yeasts and molds) and certain prokaryotes, in particular members of the genus Streptomyces.
examples of industrial products of cells are:
yeast for food, baking, and brewing
examples of industrial products from the products of cells are:
enzymes (glucose isomerase), antibiotics (penicillin), food additives (aspartame, amino acids), alcohol (ethanol), and chemicals (citric acid)
the properties of an effective industrial microorganism are:
the ability to produce product of interest in high yield, grow rapidly on inexpensive culture media available in bulk quantities, nonpathogenic, and be amenable to genetic manipulation.
the use of microorganisms to carry out a specific chemical transformation
type of microbial metabolite (byproduct of metabolism) formed during the growth phase of the microorganism
primary metabolite
type of microbial metabolite (byproduct of metabolism) formed near the end of the growth phase of the microorganism frequently at, near, or in the stationary phase
secondary metabolite
why is dramatic overproduction as well as complete repression of secondary metabolites common?
because it is not directly linked to growth and metabolism like primary metabolites
the product resulting from the conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria
acetic acid bacteria include members of the genera
acetobacter and gluconobacter
vinegar can be produced from any substance that contains ethanol; the usual starting material is:
wine, beer, or alcoholic apple juice (cider)

can also be produced from mixture of pure alcohol in water, known as distilled vinegar.
acetic acid bacteria are strict aerobes/anaerobes?
strict aerobes
how do acetic acid bacteria such as gluconobacter differ from other strict aerobes?
do not oxidize their organic electron donors completely to CO2 and water.
the main problem in the production of vinegar is to ensure:
sufficient aeration of the medium
acetic acid bacteria are _____, and can survive in the byproducts of their metabolic processes
very acid tolerant
vinegar production method where wine is placed in shallow vats with considerable exposure to the air, and the acetic acid bacteria develop as a slimy layer on the top of the liquid; this was the original process, and is inefficient
open-vat/orleans method
vinegar production method where alcoholic liquid is trickled over beechwood twigs or wood shavings packed loosely in a vat or column while a stream of air enters at the bottom and passes upward. the bacteria grow on the surface of the wood shavings.
trickle method

vat is known as a vinegar generator
vinegar production method with a submerged fermentation process. efficiency is extremely high - up to 90%-98% of alcohol is converted to acid.
bubble method
most fruit juices undergo natural fermentation caused by:
wild yeasts that are present on the fruit
alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit juice
alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of malted grains
beer or ale
alcoholic beverage produced by concentrating alcohol from a fermentation or distillation
distilled beverages
chemicals responsible for the color and stronger flavor of red wines
species of cultivated wine yeast
saccharomyces ellipsoideus
sulfur dioxide (sulfites) is added to the wine in order to kill the natural yeasts because:
the wild yeasts are less alcohol tolerant and can produce undesirable compounds affecting quality and taste of the final product.
the majority of ethanol in the U.S. is produced by

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