Glossary of Microbiology Ch. 21 (final exam)

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decrease or loss of virulence
the presence of microorganisms in the blood
dense, well-defined polysaccharide or protein layer closely surrounding a cell
multiplication of a pathogen after it has gained access to host tissues
tooth decay resulting from bacterial infection
dental caries
bacterial cells encased in a matrix of extracellular polymers and salivary products, found on the teeth
dental plaque
injury to the host that impairs host function
the lipopolysaccharide portion of the cell envelope of certain gram-negative bacteria, which acts as a toxin when solubilized
protein released extracellularly by a microorganism as it grows that produces immediate host cell damage
an abnormal increase in body temperature
a loose network of polymer fibers extending outward from the cell
an organism that harbors a parasite
growth of organisms in the host
host response to injury or infection, characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain
pathogenicity caused by the ability of a pathogen to enter the body and spread
nucleated cells found in the blood (white blood cells)
trachea, bronchi, and lungs
lower respiratory tract
layers of epithelial cells that interact with the external environment
mucous membrane
soluble glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells that coat the mucous membranes
microorganisms that are usually found associated with healthy body tissue
normal flora
an organism that grows in or on a host and damages the host
a microbial parasite that does harm to a host
the ability of a parasite to inflict damage on the host
a diffuse mat of polymer fibers surrounding cells that appear anattached to a single cell
slime layer
pathogenicity caused by toxins produced by a pathogen
the nasopharynx, oral cavity, and throat
upper repiratory tract
the degree of pathogenicity produced by a pathogen
what is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen?
a pathogen is a microbial parasite, while a parasite can be any organism that damages a host organism.
what determines the outcome of a host-parasite relationship?
the pathogenicity of the parasite and the resistance or susceptibility of the host to that parasite.
can be expressed as the cell number that will elicit a pathenogenic response in a host within a given time period
refers to any situation in which a microorganism is established and growing in a host, whether or not the host is harmed
damage or injury to the host that impairs host function
what is the difference between infection and disease?
infection is a growth of organisms in the host whether or not it causes disease. disease is the damage caused.
why are animal bodies favorable environments for the growth of microorganisms?
rich in organic nutrients; also, relatively constant conditions of pH, osmotic pressure, and temperature.
the process by which pathogens penetrate the epithelium to initiate pathogenicity
a measure of virulence - the dose of an agent that kills 50% of the animals in a test group
the ability of an organism to cause disease by means of a preformed toxin that inhibits host cell function or kills host cells
the ability of an organism to grow in host tissue in such large number that the pathogen inhibits host function
pathogen-produced extracellular proteins that aid in the establishment and maintenance of disease
virulence factors
fibrin-clotting enzyme produced by pathonogenic Staphylococcus aureus
fibrinolytic enzyme produced by streptococcus pyogenes
proteins released extracellularly as the organism grows. these toxins may travel from a focus of infection to distant parts of the body and cause damage in regions far removed from the site of microbial growth.
exotoxin produced by various pathogens that is able to act on the animal cytoplasmic membrane, causing cell lysis / cell death.
cytolytic toxins
these two toxins both block the release of neurotransmitters involved in muscle control
botulism and tetanus toxin
exotoxin that consists of two covalently bonded subunits. one subunit binds to the cell surface receptor, allowing the transfer of the other subunit across the cell membrane, where it functions to damage the cell
A-B toxins
exotoxin that works by enzymatically attacking cell constituents, causing cell lysis
cytolytic toxins
exotoxin that operates by stimulating large numbers of immune response cells resulting in extensive inflammatory reactions
superantigen toxins
toxin that causes muscle paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine from the CNS
botulism toxin
toxin that causes extreme muscle twitches or a constant contraction by binding to inhibitory interneurons and preventing the release of glycine and relaxation of muscle
tetanus toxin
enterotoxin produced by vibrio cholerae that results in extreme dehydration of host
exotoxins that act on the small intestine; generally cause a massive secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen leading to vomiting and diarrhea and general dehydration
gram-negative bacteria produce lipopolysaccharides as part of the outer layer of their cell envelope, which under many conditions are toxic; these are called _____ because they are generally cell-bound and released in large amounts only when cells are ly
the toxicity of endotoxins is more than/less than that of exotoxins?
less than (by a very large factor)
the lysis of endotoxin containing bacteria usually results in localized or systemic toxic effects in host?
systemic (fever, for example)
age, stress, and diet may all be factors in the ______ of a human to a specific pathogen
hormone produced during stressful situations that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent.

the suppression of the normal defense of inflammation results in an increase of susceptibility to a pathogen.
refers to hosts in which one or more resistance mechanisms are inactive and the probability of infection is increased
compromised host
nonspecific reaction to noxious stimuli such as toxins and pathogens
the mediators of inflammation, a protein group produced by a leukocytes
systemic inflammation; this is a life-threatening condition that occurs when inflammatory responses are not contained at a local site
septic shock

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