Glossary of Microbiology - virology
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- all DNA viruses except what are dsDNA?
- parvoviridae (part-of-a-virus)
- all DNA viruses are linear except what?
- papovaviruses (circular, supercoiled), hepadnaviruses (circular, incomplete)
- name 3 naked RNA viruses?
- calcivirus, picornavirus, reovirus (naked CPR)
- this type of virus acquires envelopes from the nuclear membrane
- most enveloped viruses aquire their envelope from where?
- from plasma membrane when they exit from cell
- all viruses are haploid except what?
- retroviruses, which have 2 identical ssRNA molecules (diploid)
- all DNA viruses replicate where? what is the exception?
- nucleus - except poxvirus
- all RNA viruses replicate where? what are the exceptions?
- cytoplasm - except influenza and retroviruses
- name the DNA viruses
- HHAPPPy viruses: hepadna, herpes, adeno, pox, parvo, papova
- this DNA virus carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
- all DNA viruses are icosahedral except what?
- pox (complex)
- naked DNA viruses (3)
- PAP: parvo, adeno, papova
- enveloped DNA viruses (3)
- HPH: hepadna, pox, herpes
- what is the largest DNA virus?
- virus causing febrile pharyngitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis
- virus causing aplastic crises in sickle cell disease, fifth disease, hydrops fetalis?
- what is the smallest DNA virus?
- parvovirus (ss linear)
- HBV is a member of what virus family?
- hepadnavirus - DNA, partial circular
- members of the picornavirus family?
- HEV and Norwalk virus belong to what family?
- calciviruses - RNA (ss, linear), icosahedral
- virus causing roseola (exanthem subitum)
- virus related to Kaposi's sarcoma?
- what type of virus is JC - causes PML in HIV
- type of virus causing Colorado tick fever?
- number one cause of fatal diarrhea in kids?
- togaviruses (3)?
- rubella, EEE, WEE
- flaviviruses (5)?
- HCV, yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus
- to what family does influenza virus belong?
- paramyxoviruses (4)
parainfluenza - croup
- Rx for RSV bronchiolitis in kids?
- what type of virus is rabies?
- what type of virus is HDV?
- MMR, Sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus have what type of vaccine?
- live attenuated
- rabies, infulenza, HAV, and Salk polio are what type of vaccine?
- egg-based vaccines?
- FRY an egg:
Flu, MMR, Yellow fever
- the vaccine for what is recombinant?
- HBV- antigen is recombinant HBsAg
- exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base sequence homology
- when viruses with segmented genomoes (e.g. influenza) exchange segments. high-frequency virus recombination; cause of worldwide pandemics
- when 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein; the nonmutated virus complemetns the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses
- genome of virus A can be coated with the surface proteins of virus B; type B protein coat determines the infectivity of the phenotypically mixed virus; however, the progeny from this infection has a type A coat and is encoded by type A genetic material
- phenotypic mixing
- DNA enveloped viruses (3)
- herpesvirus, HBV, smallpox
- DNA nucleocapsid viruses (3)
- adenovirus, papillomaviruses, parvovirus
- influenza virus, parainfluenza, RSV, measles, mumps, rubella, rapies, HTLV, and HIV are what type of RNA viruses?
- RNA enveloped viruses
- enteroviruses (poliovirus, coxsackie virus, echovirus, HAV), rhinovirus, and reovirus are what type of RNA viruses?
- RNA nucleocapsid
- segmented viruses?
- all are RNA viruses: BOAR
bunyaviruses, orhtomyxoviruses, arenaviruses, and reoviruses
- all paramyxoviruses have 1 serotype except what?
- parainfluenza virus - has 4
- parainfluenza, mumps, measles, and RSV all belong to what family?
- parotitis, orchitis, and aseptic meningitis?
- bluish-gray spots on buccal mucosa?
- Koplik spots - diagnostic for measles
- drugs for influenza A?
- amantadine and rimantadine (especially prophylaxis)
- drugs useful for both influenza A and B?
- zanamivir and oseltamivir (neuraminidase inhibitors)
- virus with a bullet-shaped capsid?
- how does rabies travel to CNS?
- migrates in a retrograde fashion up axons
- variant of dengue fever in Southeast Asia?
- hemorrhagic shock syndrome
- caused by flavivirus, an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos
- yellow fever
- high fever, black vomit, jaundice
- yellow fever
- councilman bodies (acidophilic inclusions) may be seen in liver with this virus
- yellow fever
- virus causing mono with negative monospot?
- heterophil antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep RBCs?
- monospot test
- tzanck test
- a smear of opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells - used to assay for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV
- hepatitis RNA picornavirus
- hepatitis DNA hepadnavirus
- hepatitis RNA flavivirus
- hepatitis delta virus
- hepatitis RNA calcivirus
- how is HAV trasmitted?
- type of hepatitis that is transmitted enterically and causes water-borne epidemics
- defective virus that requires HBsAg as its envelope
- common cause of transfusion-mediated hepatitis
- best test to detect active hepatitis A?
- IgM HAVAb
- continued presenc of what indicates carrier state of HBV?
- provides immunity to HBV
- positive during the window period of HBV
- HBV vaccination - what serologic marker is seen?
- HBsAb only
- rectangular nucleocapsid protein of HIV?
- HIV envelope proteins?
- gp41 and gp120
- what crosses placenta in HIV infected mothers
- CXCR1 mutation
- rapid progression to AIDS
- CCR5 mutation
- homozygous - immunity (1% U.S. caucasians)
heterozygous - slower course (20% U.S. caucasians)
- infectious agents that don't contain DNA or RNA, just protein
- normal prions have what? pathologic prions are what?
- normal - alpha helix
pathologic (like CJD) - beta pleated sheets
- virus family of HPV?
- aseptic meningitis, herpangina - febrile pharyngitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease, myocarditis
- coxsackievirus - picornavirus
- rotavirus belongs to what family?
- reovirus - DS linear segmented RNA
- hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia, RDS in NM, AZ, CO, UT
- hantavirus - member of bunyavirus family (SS circular RNA; helical capsid)
- ebola/marburg are what types of viruses?
- filoviruses - SS linear RNA, helical capsid
- triad of cutaneous hemorrhages, deafness, and periventricular CNS calcifications in a neonate
- congenital CMV infection
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