Glossary of Microbiology - Test 1

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What are the major groups of micoorganisms?
-Eubacteria, Archea, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Viruses
Whats is bacteriology?
The study of bacteris
What's virology?
The study of viruses
What is mycology?
The study of fungi
Who built a compound microscope (1665)?
Robert Hooke
Who discovered the microbial world using a simple and reported seeing "animalcules" which most likely were bacteria and protozoa (1683)?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
When yeast converts sugar to alcohol in the absence of air?
Who developed the first vaccine (against small pox)?
Who discovered penicillin in 1928?
Who purified and crystalized the tobacco mosaic virus (1935)?
Who observed the activities of viruses(early 1900's)?
Iwanowski and Bejjerinck
Whp proved that spontaneous generation does not exist using a long-necked flask bent the neck into S-shaped curve (1861)?
Louis Pasteur
What is a disease caused by a microorganism?
Infectious disease
What is a new or reoccurring infectious disease? (e.g. mad cow disease)
emerging infectious disease
What is the use of microorganisma and other bilogical systems for the benefit of mankind (e.g. vacine development)?
When is heating wine destroy microbes that cause spoilage (i.e. disease of wine) used?
If microorganisms cause disease of wine, maybe they cause disease of humans and other animals
The germ theory of disease
Who proposed the germ theory of disease? (Diseassee is caused by invisible particles or seeds that went from one person to another.
Fracastoro (1546)
What surgeon started treating phenol over the wounds while operating. (as a result, The infection rate dropped.)
Lister (1867)
Eucaryotic cells
plant cells
Procaryotic cells
plant cells
Eucaryotic cells
animal cells
-Are the sugars
-Saccharide refers to sugar
-General formula is (CH2O)n
Contain alcohol groups and an aldehyde or ketp group
-Are classified into 3 groups: Monosaccharide - A simple sugar (glucose)
Two monosaccharide joined by a glycosidic bond
A polymer of eight or more monosaccharides in a branched or linear chain
Polysaccharide (real macromolecule)
Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
Release of water
Three domains
Eubacteria, Archea, and eukarya
Functions of a capsule
a. Serves a s an antigen
b. Protects against phagocytosis
c. Prevent dehydration
d. Adhesion
e. Source of nutrients
1. Fats, phospholipids, waxes
2. Are not soluble in water
3. Are nonpolar
4. Are composed of carbon and hydrogen, but may have other elements, too.
1. Simple lipids or fats or triglycerides
2. Complex lipids
3. Steriods
Three categories of lipids
1. Simple lipids are made of glycerol and three fattyy acids
2. Ester bonds links fatty acids to glycerol
3. Ligases break ester bond to give fatty acids and glycerol
4. Fatty acids are a source of energy
Hydrophilic Head
Water Loving (attract)
Hydrophobic Tail
Water Hating (repel)
Complex lipids
Contain phosphorous, nitrogen, or sulfur in addition to fatty acids and glycerol
Have several interconnected ring structures (Sterols found in the membrane - cholesterol)
-Polymers made of amino acids
-There are 20 naturally occuring amino acids
What joins two amino acids between the carbon atom of the -COOH group of one amino acid and the nitrogen atom of the NH2 group of another?
Peptide bond
What is a chain consisting of 20 or more amino acids?
Polypeptide Acids
What is a sequence of amino acids?
Primary structure
What is the breakdown of secondary, tertiary, and quanternary structure occurs by heat, acid, and some disinfectants?
Conjugated proteins
1. Glycoproteins have sugar attached.
2. Nucleoproteins have nucleic acids attached.
3. Lipoproteins have lipid attached.
4. Phosporprotein have phosphate attached.
What is composed of a phosphate group, a pentone, and a nitrogenous group?
Thymine(Uracil) or cystosine
Guanine or Adenine
What nucleotide contains adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphates and is a high energy compound?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Any carbohydrate containg structure on the surface of a cell
What is usually made of carbohydrate, may be made of protein?
A glycocalyx made of sugars
EPS (extracelluar polysaccharide)
Function: Motility, incuding taxis, movement toward or away from an environment (e.g. chemotaxis and phtotaxis)
Three parts of flagella
filament (made of flaggellin), hook (connects the filament to the basal body), and bsal body (that anchors te flagella to the cell envelope)
What are macromolecules?
A large organic molecule
What are carbohydrates?
An organic compaound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen preseint in a 2:1 ratio (e.g. starches, sugars, and cellulose)
How are carbohydrates made? from what?
by Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. (alcohol groups, aldehyde 0r keto group)
What are lipids?
A non-water (nonpolar) soluable organic molecule, including triglyercides, phospholipids, and sterols
How are lipids made? From what?
Made of glycerol and three fatty acids, ester bond links fatty acids to glycerol
What are sterols? Where are they found?
A specific group of lipids. including cholesterol and hormones. Found in the membrane of eucaryotic cells
What are phospholipids?
A complex lipisd composed of glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group. Role: Membrane structure.
What are proteins?
A large molecule containing carbon, hydrogen, ovygen, mitrogen (and sulfur)
How are proteins made? from what?
Polymers made of amino acids. An amino acid has an alpha carbo. Alpha carbon has NH2 group, COOH group, Hydrogen, R group (e.g. H, CH, OH, etc)
What is an amino acid?
An organic acid containing na amino group and a carboxyl group

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