Glossary of Microbiology - Exam 1
Other Decks By This User
- Associated with Staph. infections, biols(furuncles), impetigo
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Associated with Step. throat, Rheumatic fever
- A caterpillar pathogen, so used for insect control
- Bacillus thuringiensis
- Causes serious liver damage
- Hepatitis B
- Demonstrated that hand washing reduced the transmission of Puerperal fever (childbirth fever)
- Ignaz Semmelweis
- Wanted to reduce surgical sepsis (festering of surgical wounds). Developed method using mist of carbolic acid.
- Joseph Lister
- Found a species of fungus causing a silkworm disease.
- Found an actual species of Protozoa causing a disease of silkworms.
- Louis Pasteur
- Koch's Postulates
- 1. The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.
2. The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.
3. The pure culture should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.
4. The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
- Pure Culture
- Only one species of microbe present
- First person to view microorganisms now called bacteria and protozoa.
- Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
- Developed cell theory after discovering small square structures in a thin slice of cork.
- Robert Hooke
- Disproved the spontaneous generation theory by placing meat in sealed flasks.
- Francesco Redi
- Claimed microorganisms developed spontaneously from fluids
- John Needham
- Claimed microorganisms entered Needham's solutions through the air, showed microbial growth didn't occur if flask was sealed.
- Lazzaro Spallanzani
- Disproved spontaneous generation theory with "swan-neck" flask experiment
- Louis Pasteur
- His exeriments showed the importance of oxygen to life.
- Laurent Lavoisier
- Developed biogenesis theory. (All cells arise from other cells)
- Rudolf Virchow
- Study of protozoa and worms that derive nutrients from host.
- Study of insects, mites, and ticks.
- Medical Entomology
- Study of fungus.
- Study of algae.
- relatively simple aquatic organisms that are usually photosynthetic.
- -type of algae called Dinoflagellate
-some produce a toxin causing paralytic shellfish poisoning
- Red Tide Organism
- -very important base of food chain
-have external cell covering of silica
-used as filter for water supplies
- Guniea worm, Tapeworm, hookworm are in field of ______
- Botflies, mosquitos, lice, scabies mite, mange are in field of ______
- Medical Entomology
- Penicillum camemberti, digger dermatophyte are in field of _____
- What is the taxonomic classification of humankind?
- To cut holes in the skull (related to demonic possession)
- What are Ill Humors?
- body fluids and imbalance of which caused illness.
bilious = irritable
phlegmatic = sluggish
- Romans believed feverish disease that struck was the result of malaria coming off marshes
- Bad Air or Bad Water
- Have cell wall without peptidoglycan
Halophile - extremely salty
Thermophile - extremely hot
- Method of Bacterial cell division (DNA copied and cell splits into two)
- Binary fission
- rod shape
- sphere shape
- spiral shape
- spiral shape
- Escherichia coli
- single bacillus cells
- Two bacilli connected end to end
- chain of rods connected end to end
- examle of streptobacillus
- Bacillus subtilis
- example of Diplococcus
- Neisseria gonorrhea
- four cocci in flat square
- 8 cocci in a box
- Chain of coccal cells connected end-to-end
- Irregular cluster of cocci
ex) Staphylococcus aureus
- Curved rod, may be only slightly curved, or may have several twists
- Curved rods, looks like a comma
- Twisted rod that moves with help of flagella
- Twisted cell that moves with axial filament, NOT flagella
- Four structures external to cell wall
- What are the 2 types of glycocalyx?
- 1.capsule- tightly adherent (appears smooth and shiny)
2.slime layer- loosely adherent (appears fluffy and irregular)
- Functions of glycocalyx
- 1. Attachment (rocks in stream)
2. Bacterial Virulence - ability to cause disease (bacteria harder to grasp)
- bacterial cell with one flagellum
- bacterial cell with flagella over the entire suface
- Describe bacterial flagellum structure
- flagellum proteins wound in helix around hollow central core
- Structure similar to flagella except run length of cell between sheath and cell wall
- Axial filament
- One-way transfer
- called Bacterial Conjugation
- transfer involves extra piece of DNA called plasmid. Transfer is through a pilus.
- Gram Positive Organisms
- all muscles contracted so back is contracted back
- Causes Gas gangrene, occurs after antibiotic therapy
- C. dificile
- Gram Negative Outer membrane includes:
- protein that extends through the outer membrane
- Gram Neg. Bacteria Examples
- 1.E. coli
- Distinguishes bacteria on the basis of waxes on the cell wall.
- Acid-fast stain
- AFB example
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Helps cell withstand environmental conditions, sometimes produces toxins
- Prokaryotic ribosome density
Eukaryotic ribosome density
- How many endospores formed per cell?
(can tolerate 119 degrees C)
- Process of Endospore Formation
- 1.cell replicates DNA, identical copy made of chromosome plasma.
2.copies isolated in a region
3.cell membrane grows down to surround copies (includes ribosomes)
4.cell wall grows around the cell membrane
5.thick spore coat grows around cell wall
- Targets metabolism that makes peptidoglycan(CELL WALL)
- Targets prokaryotic CELL MEMBRANE
- Polymixin B (neosporin)
- Antiseptics examples
-Quaternary Ammonium Compound
- vaccine targets C. diptheriae
- DPT (Diptheria Pertusis Tetanus)
- Targets Prokaryotic Ribosomes(they have a different density)
You must Login or Register to add cards