Glossary of Microbiology - Bacteria 2
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- These bugs do not Gram stain well (Nm)
- (These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color)
Treponema, Rickettsia, Mycobacteria, Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia
- How are Treponema visualized?
- dark field microscopy and fluorescent antibody staining (spirochete--too small to be visualized on G stain)
- Why don't Rickettsia gram stain?
- Why don't Mycobacteria gram stain? What stain do they require?
- high lipid content cell wall requires acid-fast stain
- Why don't Mycoplasma gram stain?
- no cell wall
- Why don't Legionella gram stain? What do they stain with?
- primarily intracellular; silver stain
- Why don't Chlamydia gram stain?
- intracellular, lacks muramic acid in cell wall (remember: EBs and RBs; inclusion bodies stain with iodine)
- Mechanism of superantigens?
- bind to MHCII and Tcell receptor, activating large number of T cells to stimulate release of IFN-g and IL-2
- 2 main bugs that make superantigens?
- S aureus, S pyogenes
- 2 impt S. aureus exotoxins? Clinical effects?
- TSST-1; toxic shock syndrome (fever, rash, shock)
Enterotoxin; food poisoning
(both can act as superantigens)
- Impt S pyogenes exotoxin? Clinical effects?
- scarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin; scarlet fever and toxic shock-like syndrome
- Bugs that make ADP-ribosylating A-B toxins?
- Corynebacteria, E coli, B pertussis, V cholera
- Mech of ADP-ribosylating A-B toxins?
- interfere w/host cell fn: B(binding) component binds host recep, endocytosis; A(active) component attaches ADP-ribosyl to host protein, altering fn
- What does Corynebacteria diphtheriae exotoxin do? Clinical effects?
- diphtheria toxin: inactivates elongation factor (EF-2)(similar to pseudomonas exotoxin A); causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in throat
- What does cholera toxin do? Clinical effects?
- cholera enterotoxin: ADP ribosylation of Gs protein stim' AC, inc cAMP, inc pumping Cl and H2O into gut, voluminous rice-water diar
- Exotoxins made by enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC)? Clinical effects?
- Heat labile toxin (LT): stim AC (cholera like mech) to inc cAMP
Heat stabile toxin (ST): stim GC to inc cGMP
causes fluid and elec loss, watery diar (traveler's diar)
Nm: Labile like the Air, Stable like the Ground
- Exotoxin made by Bordetella pertussis? Clinical effects?
- stims AC, causes whooping cough; inhib chemokine recep, causes lymphocytosis
- Clostridium perfringes exotoxin? Clin effects?
- alpha toxin (lecithinase): lysis of RBCs and endoth cells, causes gas gangrene
- C. tetani exotoxin? Clin effects?
- tetanospasmin: blocks release of inhib NTs (GABA, gly), causes tetanus, lockjaw
- C. botulinum exotoxin? Clin effects?
- botulinum toxin: blocks release of ACh, anti-chol sx, flaccid paralysis (esp in CNs); spores found in canned food, honey; floppy baby synd
- Bacillus anthracis toxin? Clin effects?
- anthrax toxin: 1 toxin in the complex is an AC; causes edema and cell death
- Shigella exotoxin? Clin effects?
- Shiga toxin, cleaves host rRNA, enhances cytokine release, causes HUS, dysentery
- What other organism makes shiga-like toxin? Clin effects?
- E coli EHEC, 0157:H7; bloody diar, like dysentery, HUS
- Impt (non-superantigen) exotoxin of S pyogenes?
- Streptolysin O: lyses RBCs; is ASO ab in rheum fever
- What 3 pathways does endotoxin activate?
- macrophages, complement (alt path), Hageman factor (coag cascade)
- What are the effects of activated macrophages (by endotoxin)?
- inc IL-1 -> fever
inc TNF -> fever, hemorr necrosis
inc NO -> hypotension (shock)
- What are the effects of activated complement pathway (by endotoxin)?
- inc C5a -> neutrophil chemotax
inc C3a -> hypotens, edema
- What is the effect of activated Hageman factor (by endotoxin)?
- activated coag cascade -> DIC
- Is endotoxin heat stable?
- What sugar does meningococci ferment?
- maltose and glucose
- What sugar does gonococci ferment?
- glucose only
- 3 impt pigment producing bacteria? What color pigments?
- S aureus (yellow/gold)
Serratia marcescens (red-thing maraschino cherries)
- Impt G+ cocci
- Staph, strep
- Impt G+ cat+ cocci
- Staph: aureus, epidermidis, saprophyticus
- G+ cat+ coag+
- S aureus
- G+ cat+ coag-
- S epid, S sapro
- G+ cat+ coag- novobiocin sensitive
- S epidermidis
- G+ cat+ coag- novobiocin resistant
- S saprophyticus
- lab algorithm for GAS
- G+ cocci, cat-, beta-hem, bacitracin sens
- lab algorithm for GBS
- G+ cocci, cat-, beta hem, bacitracin resistant
- lab algorithm for viridans strep
- G+ cocci, cat-, alpha hem, optochin R (no capsule)
- lab algorithm for strep pneumo
- G+ cocci, cat-, alpha hem, optochin S (capsule), +quellung
- G+ cocci, cat-, gamma hem?
- peptostreptococcus (anaerobe)
enterococcus (alpha or gamma hem)
- G+ rods
- Corynebacteria, Clostridium, Bacillus, Listeria, Actinomyces
- which G+ rods are anaerobes?
- clostridium, actinomyces
- G- cocci
- N meningitidis, N gonorrhoeae
- G- cocci, maltose fermenter
- N men
- G- cocci, malt non ferm
- N gon
- G- rods, lactose nonfermenters
- Shig, Salm, Prot, Pseudomonas, Yersinia
- G- rods, lact nonferm, oxidase+
- G- rods, lact nonferm, oxidase-
- shig, salm, prot
- G- rods, lact fast fermenters
- Kleb, E coli, Enterobacter
- G- rods, lact slow fermenters
- Citrobacter, Serratia, Others
- G- coccobacilli
- H flu, Pasturella, brucella, B pertussis
- H flu cult media?
- choc agar w/ factors V(NAD) and X(hematin)
- N gon
- B pertussis
- Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
- C diphtheria
- Tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar
- M TB
- lowenstein-jensen agar
- lactose-fermenting enterics
- pink on MacConkey's
- charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with inc iron and cysteine
- Sabouraud's agar
- Congo red stain
- amyloid; apple green birefringence in polarized light (because of beta pleated sheets)
- Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, Chlamydia
- PAS (periodic acid-Schiff)
- stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides; used to dx Whipple's ds
- acid-fast bact
- India ink
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- silver stain
- fungi, PCP, legionella
- Conjugation? Type of cell? Type of DNA?
- direct cell to cell transfer; prok; chrom or plasmid
- Transduction? Type of cell? Type of DNA?
- phage mediated cell to cell transfer; prok; any gene (in generalized transduction)
- Transformation? Type of cell? Type of DNA?
- purified DNA taken up by a cell; prok or euk; any DNA
- Transposition? Type of cell? Type of DNA?
- DNA transfer to same or another chrom or plasmid w/in a cell; prok or euk; DNA sequences ("jumping genes")
- What toxins are lysogenic?
- (genetic code for toxin encoded in lysogenic phage)
Botulinum toxin, Cholera toxin, Diphtheria, Erythrogenic toxin (S pyog)
- impt obligate aerobes? (Nm)
- Nagging Pests Must Breathe; P AERuginosa is an AERobe
Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium TB (like the apices), Bacillus
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa, common presentations?
- (aerobic), in burn wounds, nosocomial pneumonia, and pneumonia in CF pts
- impt obligate anaerobes?
- Clostridiu, bacteroides, actinomyces
- biochemical characteristics of anaerobes?
- lack catalase and/or superoxide dismutase, thus are susceptible to oxidative damage
- general characteristics of anaerobes?
- foul smelling (short chain fatty acids), hard to culture, produce gas in tissue (CO2 and H2)
- where are anaerobes normal flora?
- GI tract
- what antibiotics are ineffective a/g anaerobes?
- aminoglycosides (b/c they require O2 to enter into bacterial cell)
- Obligate intracellular bugs (Nm)
- Stay inside (cells) when its Really Cold
- Facultative intracellular bugs (Nm)
- Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY
Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia
- Impt encapsulated bact?
- Strep pneumo, H flu (esp B serotype), N men, Kleb pneumo
- What does a pos quellung rxn indicate?
- if encapsulated bug is present, capsule swells when specific anticapsular antisera are added
- Impt spore forming bact?
- G+ soil bugs (eg Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringes, C. tetani)
- Impt alpha-hemolytic bugs?
- strep pneumo (cat-, optochin s), viridans strep (cat-, optochin r)
- impt beta-hemolytic bugs?
- staph aureus (cat+, coag+)
GAS (cat-, bacitracin s)
GBS (cat-, bacitracin r)
listeria monocytogenes (tumbling motility, meningitis in newborns, unpast milk)
- what does catalase do?
- degrades H2O2 (an antimicrob product of PMNs, and a substrate for myeloperoxidase)
- coag pos staph? vs coag neg staph?
- aureus vs epidermidis & saprophyticus
- impt staph aureus (surface) virulence factor?
- protein A: binds Fc-IgG, inhib comp fixation and phag
- s aureus, inflam mediated ds?
- skin infections, organ abscesses, pneumonia (often following viral flu, w/cavitations), acute endocarditis, osteomyelitis
- s aureus, toxin mediated ds', and associated toxins?
- toxic shock synd (TSST-1 (superant)), scalded skin synd (exfoliative toxin), rapid-onset food poisoning (enterotoxins)
- GAS: major surface virulence factor?
- M protein (inhib' opson, but Ab to M prot enhances host defenses)
- GAS: pyogenic infections?
- pharyngitis, skin infect (cellulitis, impetigo, nec fasc)
- GAS: toxigenic infections?
- toxic shock syndrome, scarlet fever
- GAS: immunologic infections?
- glomerulonephritis (following pharyngitis or skin infec)
rheumatic fever (following pharyngitis)
- Sx of rheumatic fever? (Nm)
- No "rheum" for SPECCulation
Subcut nodules, Polyarthritis, Erythema marginatum, Chorea, Carditis
- Strep pneum is most common cause of: (Nm)
- S pneumo MOPS are Most OPtochin Sensitive
Meningitis, Otitis media (in kids), Pneumonia, Sinusitis
- s pneumo, 2 major virulence factors
- IgA protease (allows mucosal colonization), capsule
- which type of strep is assoc w/ "rusty" sputum, sepsis in sickle cell anemia and splenectomy?
- GBS diseases?
- pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis (mainly in babies)
- enterococcal ds'?
- UTIs and subacute bact endocarditis (SBE)
- can you treat enterococci with pen G?
- no! Pen G resistant; use aminoglycoside + vanc, except for VRE!
- staph epidermidis ds'?
- UTIs and SBE; infects prosthetics and catheters; component of normal skin flora; contaminates blood cultures
- viridans strep lab diag?
- alpha hem, optochin r (not afraid of-the-chin)
- main types of viridans strep and their ds'?
- strep mutans (dental caries)-normal oral flora
strep sanguis (SBE)
- ID: G+, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacilli?
- C. tetani toxin?
- exotoxin blocks release of inhib NTs (glycine) from Renshaw cells in spinal cord -> tetanic paralysis (spastic)
- C. botulinum toxin?
- preformed, heat labile toxin , blocks release of ACh -> flaccid paralysis, floppy baby synd (honey)
- C. perfringes toxin?
- alpha toxin (lecithinase), causes myonecrosis, hemolysis, gas gangrene
- C. difficile toxins? what condition do they cause?
- enterotox (exotoxin A): fluid s/c and intest hemor
cytotoxin (exotoxin B): mucosal damage
- common antibiotics that cause pseudomembranous colitis?
- amp (pen->inhib peptid cross linking), clinda (lincosamide->inhib 50S)
- what do you treat pseudomemb colitis (C diff) with?
- ID: G+ rods, w/long branching filaments resembling fungi (2 org')
- Actinomyces and Nocardia
- characteristic ds of actinomyces israelii?
- oral/facial abscesses w/ yellow "sulfer granules" in sinus tracts
- characteristic ds of nocardia?
- pulm infection (w/abscesses) in immunocomp pts
- how do you distinguish actinomyces from nocardia?
- actinomyces: G+ anaerobe, sulfer granules have non acid fast rods
nocardia: G+ aerobe, weakly acid fast
- Tx for actinomyces and nocardia? (Nm)
Sulfonamides (inhib DNA synth by folate inhib) for Nocardia
Actinomyces, use Penicillin (or Amp)
- what are G- bugs resistant to?
- generally, G- outer membrane layer inhib' entry of PEN G and VANC
(exception: N men suscept to Pen G)
but, may be susceptible to pen derivatives such as amp
- Meningococci vs Gonococci:
- mening: capsule, +maltose ferm, vaccine avail <2yo
gonococci: no capsule, -maltose ferm, no vaccine
- gonococcal ds'?
- gonorrhea, PID, septic arthritis, neonatal conjunctivitis, pharyngitis
- meningococcal ds'?
- meningitis, meningococcemia (purpura, DIC), Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (DIC and bilat adrenal necrosis)
- N gon tx?
- ceftriaxone (+ doxy for chlamydial coverage)
- N men tx? prophylaxis?
- Pen G (or broad-spec cephalosporins--eg ceftriax)
- H flu ds'? (Nm)
Epiglottitis, Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia
- most virulent H flu capsular type?
- Hib (type B)
- H flu virulence factors?
- capsule, IgA protease
- cult H flu on? (Nm)
- kid w/flu, go to the five(V) and dime(X) to get choc
choc agar w/factor V(NAD) and X(hematin)
- H flu meningitis or epiglottitis tx? prophylaxis?
- ceftriaxone or cefotaxime (broad spec beta-lactamase resistant cephalos)
rifampin in close contacts
- what does H flu vaccine contain? age given?
- type B capsular polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or other protein; given b/t 2 and 18mos of age
- what is the key metabolite that raises hypothalamic thermostat?
- PGE2 (endog pyrogens cause inc arach acid, w/inc AA metabolites)
- Enterobacteriaceae: serology (what antigens present)?
- O antigen (somatic; part of LPS)
K antigen (capsular; antiphag; in Kleb and Salm)
H antigen (flagellar; except in Kleb & Shig--nonmotile)
all ferment __?
- G-, all ferment glucose, oxidase-
- non-lactose fermenters?
- Shig, Salm, Yersinia -- more pathogenic than lactose ferm
Proteus (not so pathogenic)
- lactose fermenters?
- (pink on MacConkey)
Kleb, Ecoli, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia
- facultative intracellular enterobacteriaceae?
- salm, yersinia
- Klebsiella causes: (Nm)
- 3 A's: Aspiration pneumonia, Abscesses in lungs, in Alcoholics
opportunistic, severe lobar pneumonia in alcholics, diabetics, COPD, and nosocomial UTIs
- Klebsiella sputum?
- red currant jelly
- Salm vs Shig:
- both: non lact ferm, invade mucosal, can cause bloody diar
Salm: motile, can invade further, dissem hematogenously; sx of salm can be prolonged by antibiotics, typically w/monocyte response, less virulent (10^5), animal reservoir
Shig: more virulent (10^1), no anim reservoir, transmitted by Food, Fingers, Feces, Flies
- shigella toxin? mech? ds'?
- shiga toxin; inhib prot synth by cleaving host rRNA; causes shigellosis (bacillary dysentery), may cause HUS
- yersinia enterocolitica: common transmiss? ds'? what can it mimic?
- usu transmiss via pet feces, contam milk, pork; enterocolitis (clinically indisting from shig or salm); can mimic Crohn's or appendicitis
- contaminated seafood?
- Vibrio parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus
- reheated rice?
- Bacillus cereus
- meats, mayo, custard; w/abrupt onset & offset
- S aureus
- reheated meat (double zone of hemolysis)
- Clostridium perfringes
- bulging cans, honey
- Clostridium botulinum
- undercooked meat
- E coli O157:H7
- poultry, meat, eggs
- bugs causing bloody diarrhea
- Campy, Salm, Shig, EHEC, EIEC, Yers, C diff, Entaemoeba histolytica
- bugs causing watery diarrhea
- ETEC, vibrio cholerae, C perfringes, protozoa (giardia, cryptosporidium (in imm-comp)), viruses (roto, adeno, noro)
- cAMP inducing toxins
- -vibrio cholerae toxin: activates Gs (rice-water diar)
-pertussis toxin: disables Gi, stim' AC (whooping cough); also inhib chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis
-Ecoli(heat labile toxin): stim AC
-Bacillus anthracis toxin: edema factor, =AC
- which cAMP inducers act via ADP-ribosylation (to permenantly activate AC)
- cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, E coli toxin
- stain and cult for Legionella pneumophila?
- silver stain, charcoal yeast extract w/iron and cysteine
(G stains poorly)
- legionella ds?
- legionnaire's ds: atypical pneumonia (dry, nonproduc cough)
pontiac fever (self-lim febrile illness w/o pneumonia)
- legionella transmiss?
- water sources (eg AC systems), no person-to-person transmiss
- legionella tx?
- erythromycin (or azith) (can penetrate into WBCs)
- main pathogenesis of legionella?
- intracellular survival
- mycoplasma pneumoniae ds?
- primary atypical walking pneumonia (mild interstitial)
- mycoplas pneumoniae dx? culture media?
- high titer of cold agglutinins (IgM); grown on Eaton's agar
- at risk pop for mycoplasma pneumonia?
- military barracks, prisons; common in young adults
- mycoplasma cell wall/membrane characteristics?
- no cell wall (therefore pen resistant); only bacterial membrane containing cholesterol
- mycoplasma pneumonia tx?
- tetra or erythro (resistant to beta-lactams!)
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