Glossary of Microbiology: Chapter 5

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Active Transport
The transport of solute molecules across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient; it requires a carrier protein and the input of energy (ATP)
A complex sulfated polysaccharide, usually from red algae, that is used as a solidifying agent in the preparation of a culture media
Linked transport in which the transported substances move in oppostie directions
Growth Factors
Organic compounds that must be supplied in the diet for growth because they are essential cell components or precursors of such components and can't be synthesized
An organism that uses CO2 as its sole or principal source of carbon
An organism that uses reduced, preformed organic molecules as its principal carbon
Chemolithotrophic Autotrophs (Chemolithoautotrophs)
Microorganisms that oxidized reduced inorganic compounds to derive both energy and electrons; CO2 is their carbon source
Chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs (Chemoheterotrophs)
Organisms that use organic compounds as sources of energy, hydrogen, electrons, and carbon for biosynthesis
Organisms that obtain energy from the oxidation of chemical compounds
An assemblage of microorganisms growing on a solid surface such as the surface of an agar culture medium; the assmeblage often is directly visible, but also may be seen only microscopically
Complex Medium
Culture medium that contains some ingredients of unknown chemical composition
Defined Medium (Synthetic Medium)
Culture medium made with components of known composition
Differential Media
Culture media that distinguish between groups of microorganims based on differences in their growth and metabolic products
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion across the plasma membrane that is aided by a carrier
Group Translocation
A transport process in which a molecule is moved across a membrane by carrier proteins while being chemically altered at the same time
An organism that uses reduced inorganic compounds as its electron source
Nutrients required by microorganisms in relatively large amounts (C, O, H, N, S, and P)
Nutrients such as zinc, manganese, and copper that are required in very small quantities for growth and reproduction (AKA: Trace Elements)
Refers to microorganisms that combine autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolic processes (they use inorganic electron sources and organic carbon sources)
A substance that supports growth and reproduction
Organisms that use reduced organic compounds as their electron source
Passive Diffusion
The prosses in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration as a result of random thermal agitation
Water-soluble digests or hydrolysates of proteins that are used in the preparation of culture media
A membrane-bound carrier protein or a system of two or more proteins that transport a substance across the membrane
Pour Plate
A petri dish of solid culture medium with isolated microbial colonies growing both on its surface and within the medium
Phophoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
The best-known group translocation system; it transports a variety of sugars into procaryotic cells while phosphorylating them using PEP as the phosphate donor
Pure Culture
A population of cells that are idenitical because they arise from a single cell
Photolithotrophic Autotrophs (Photoautotrophs)
Organisms that uses light energy, an inorganic electron source (eg. H2O, H2, H2S), and CO2 as a carbon source
Photoorganotrophic Hetertrophs
Microorganisms that use light energy and organic electron donors, and also employ simple organic molecules rather than CO2 as their carbon source
Organisms that use light as their energy source
Selective Media
Culture media that favor the growth of specific microorganisms; this may be accomplished by inhibiting the growth of undesired microorganisms
A small molecule that complexes with ferric iron and supplies it to a cell by aiding in its transport across the plasma membrane
Linked transport of two substances in which they both go in the same direction
An organic compound required by organisms in minute quantities for growth and reproduction becasue it cannot be synthesized by the organism; vitamins often serve as enzyme cofactors or parts of cofactors

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